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01.12.2017 | Study protocol | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

BMC Cancer 1/2017

A protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a self-help psycho-education programme to reduce diagnosis delay in women with breast cancer symptoms in Indonesia

BMC Cancer > Ausgabe 1/2017
Hari Setyowibowo, Marit Sijbrandij, Aulia Iskandarsyah, Joke A. M. Hunfeld, Sawitri S. Sadarjoen, Dharmayanti F. Badudu, Drajat R. Suardi, Jan Passchier
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​s12885-017-3268-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent cancer occurring in women across the world. Its mortality rate in low-middle income countries (LMICs) is higher than in high-income countries (HICs), and in Indonesia BC is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Delay in breast cancer diagnosis negatively impacts cancer prognosis. Only about 30% of patients who come to the hospital to check on their breast abnormalities, continue thorough examination to biopsy to get a diagnosis based on the results of anatomical pathology. Many Indonesian women with breast cancer were already in an advanced stage when starting treatment. Therefore, delay in diagnosis is a serious problem that needs to be addressed. The present study will investigate whether our newly developed self-help psycho-educational programme, “PERANTARA”, for women with breast cancer symptoms is effective to reduce patient diagnosis delay in Indonesia.


A cluster-randomized controlled trial will be conducted in 106 patients in four hospitals in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Data will be collected at baseline (pre-assessment), 7 days after the intervention (post-assessment), and at 3 months (follow-up assessments). The primary outcome is delay in diagnosis and treatment. Secondary outcomes are breast cancer knowledge, anxiety and depression, and quality of life. Exploratively, adherence with treatment will be measured too. Data will be analysed by hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) to assess differential change over time.


If proven effective, PERANTARA will be evaluated and implemented in a diversity of settings for local cares (such as in POSYANDU, PUSKESMAS) that provide health education/psycho-education for women with breast symptoms.

Trial registration

ISRCTN12570738. Date: November 19th, 2016.
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