Skip to main content
main-content

30.10.2017 | Systematic Review | Ausgabe 2/2018

Sports Medicine 2/2018

Chronic Physiological Effects of Swim Training Interventions in Non-Elite Swimmers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Zeitschrift:
Sports Medicine > Ausgabe 2/2018
Autoren:
Ian M. Lahart, George S. Metsios
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (http://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s40279-017-0805-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

Background

Swimming is a popular and potentially health-enhancing exercise, but has received less scientific attention compared with other exercise modes.

Objective

The objective of the study was to determine the chronic (long-term) effect of pool swim training on physiological outcomes in non-elite or non-competitive swimming participants.

Design

This study was a systematic review with a meta-analysis.

Data Sources

We searched the electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE and CENTRAL from inception to March 2017.

Eligibility Criteria

The eligibility criteria included randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials and controlled trials of chronic (long-term) swimming interventions in non-elite or non-competitive swimming participants, with a physiological outcome measure.

Results

Our search of 6712 records revealed 29 eligible studies. Swimming had a significant and clinically meaningful effect on maximal oxygen uptake compared with the control in an analysis including multiple populations (mean difference 6.32 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval 4.33–8.31), and subgroup analyses of healthy children/adolescents (mean difference 7.93 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval 3.31–12.55) and those with asthma (mean difference 9.67 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval 5.84–13.51) and healthy adults (mean difference 5.87 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval 2.93–8.81). Swimming also resulted in significant improvements in other cardiorespiratory fitness-related outcomes such as maximal minute ventilation (mean difference 0.61 L/min; 95% confidence interval 0.17–1.05), submaximal exercise performance (standardised mean difference 0.64; 95% confidence interval 0.14–1.13) and total exercise test time (mean difference 4.27 min; 95% confidence interval 2.11–6.42). Compared with the control, swimming had significant favourable effects on body mass (mean difference − 2.90 kg, 95% confidence interval − 5.02 to − 0.78), body fat percentage in multiple populations (mean difference − 1.92%; 95% confidence interval − 3.25 to − 0.60) and healthy children/adolescents (mean difference − 1.92%; 95% confidence interval − 4.64 to − 0.80) and lean mass (mean difference 1.96 kg; 95% confidence interval 0.21–3.71), but negative effects on waist circumference in a pooled analysis of two studies involving adults with hypertension (mean difference 4.03 cm; 95% confidence interval 2.58–5.49). Regarding lung function, significant effects of swimming vs. the control were found only for peak expiratory volume in analyses including children/adolescents combined with healthy adults (mean difference 58.74 L/min; 95% confidence interval 29.70–87.78) and children/adolescents with asthma alone (mean difference 63.49 L/min; 95% confidence interval 25.01–101.97). Based on limited data, swimming had similar effects to other exercise modes, except for higher post-intervention body mass index values with swimming vs. running in healthy adults (mean difference 1.18 kg/m2; 95% confidence interval 0.54–1.81).

Conclusions

Swimming may offer robust beneficial effects on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition across multiple populations and effects may be comparable to other exercise modes. Future randomised controlled trials are required to establish the effectiveness of swimming on physiological outcomes in healthy populations and those with non-communicable disease.

Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten

★ PREMIUM-INHALT
e.Med Interdisziplinär

Mit e.Med Interdisziplinär erhalten Sie Zugang zu allen CME-Fortbildungen und Fachzeitschriften auf SpringerMedizin.de. Zusätzlich können Sie eine Zeitschrift Ihrer Wahl in gedruckter Form beziehen – ohne Aufpreis.

Jetzt bestellen und im ersten Jahr 100€ sparen!Jetzt e.Med zum Sonderpreis bestellen!

Weitere Produktempfehlungen anzeigen
Zusatzmaterial
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1115 kb)
40279_2017_805_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Literatur
Über diesen Artikel

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 2/2018

Sports Medicine 2/2018 Zur Ausgabe
  1. Sie können e.Med Orthopädie & Unfallchirurgie 14 Tage kostenlos testen (keine Print-Zeitschrift enthalten). Der Test läuft automatisch und formlos aus. Es kann nur einmal getestet werden.


 

Neu im Fachgebiet Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie

Mail Icon II Newsletter

Bestellen Sie unseren kostenlosen Newsletter Update Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie und bleiben Sie gut informiert – ganz bequem per eMail.

Bildnachweise