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25.07.2017 | Original Paper | Ausgabe 5/2018

International Ophthalmology 5/2018

Cognitive evaluation of patients with glaucoma and its comparison with individuals with Alzheimer’s disease

International Ophthalmology > Ausgabe 5/2018
Stephanie Toledo Piza Maurano, Delson José da Silva, Marcos P. Ávila, Leopoldo Magacho



To evaluate the cognitive performance of patients with glaucoma and compare it to individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD).


This is a prospective, cross-sectional and case–control study. All subjects were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its subtests verbal fluency, word list memory, delayed recall of the word list, word list recognition test, Boston naming and constructive praxis from Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD). The results were compared among the groups.


A total of 50 healthy elderly with a mean age of 71.2 ± 5.2 years; 41 patients with glaucoma (72.2 ± 4.4 years); and 21 patients with AD (79.0 ± 7.6 years) were included. There was a reduction in all cognitive assessment tests evaluated, both for patients with glaucoma, and for those with AD compared with controls (p < 0.001 for all). Comparing the patients with glaucoma and AD, it was noted that the last had lower cognitive function (p < 0.001), except for the CERAD tests Boston (p = 0.1) and praxis (p = 0.6). Glaucoma patients, however, presented results of cognitive tests similar to those described for patients with mild AD, including lower values for MMSE (21.9 ± 3.7), Boston (10.6 ± 2.6) and praxis (5.9 ± 2.3).


Glaucoma patients had reduction in cognition when compared to normal individuals. They were similar to the values reported in the literature for patients with mild AD, mostly, and also in some subjects with the presence of advanced AD.

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