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15.07.2021 | COVID-19 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2021 Open Access

BMC Medicine 1/2021

Dynamic changes of functional fitness, antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and immunological indicators within 1 year after discharge in Chinese health care workers with severe COVID-19: a cohort study

Zeitschrift:
BMC Medicine > Ausgabe 1/2021
Autoren:
Lijuan Xiong, Qian Li, Xiongjing Cao, Huangguo Xiong, Ming Huang, Fengwen Yang, Qingquan Liu, Daquan Meng, Mei Zhou, Gang Wang, Jun Tong, Tengfei Chen, Yanzhao Zhang, Xinliang He, Yunzhou Fan, Yupeng Zhang, Liang Tang, Yang Jin, Jiahong Xia, Yu Hu
Wichtige Hinweise

Supplementary Information

The online version contains supplementary material available at https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s12916-021-02042-0.
Lijuan Xiong, Qian Li, Xiongjing Cao, Huangguo Xiong, Ming Huang, Fengwen Yang contributed equally to this work as co-first authors.
Yu Hu, Jiahong Xia and Yang Jin contributed equally to this work as co-corresponding authors.
A comment to this article is available online at https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s12916-021-02084-4.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Abstract

Background

Few studies had described the health consequences of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) especially in those with severe infections after discharge from hospital. Moreover, no research had reported the health consequences in health care workers (HCWs) with COVID-19 after discharge. We aimed to investigate the health consequences in HCWs with severe COVID-19 after discharge from hospital in Hubei Province, China.

Methods

We conducted an ambidirectional cohort study in “Rehabilitation Care Project for Medical Staff Infected with COVID-19” in China. The participants were asked to complete three physical examinations (including the tests of functional fitness, antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and immunological indicators) at 153.4 (143.3, 164.8), 244.3 (232.4, 259.1), and 329.4 (319.4, 339.3) days after discharge, respectively. Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, t test, one-way ANOVA, χ2, and Fisher’s exact test were used to assess the variance between two or more groups where appropriate.

Results

Of 333 HCWs with severe COVID-19, the HCWs’ median age was 36.0 (31.0, 43.0) years, 257 (77%) were female, and 191 (57%) were nurses. Our research found that 70.4% (114/162), 48.9% (67/137), and 29.6% (37/125) of the HCWs with severe COVID-19 were considered to have not recovered their functional fitness in the first, second, and third functional fitness tests, respectively. The HCWs showed improvement in muscle strength, flexibility, and agility/dynamic balance after discharge in follow-up visits. The seropositivity of IgM (17.0% vs. 6.6%) and median titres of IgM (3.0 vs. 1.4) and IgG (60.3 vs. 45.3) in the third physical examination was higher than that in the first physical examination. In the third physical examination, there still were 42.1% and 45.9% of the HCWs had elevated levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, and 11.9% and 6.3% of the HCWs had decreased relative numbers of CD3+ T cells and CD4+ T cells.

Conclusion

The HCWs with severe COVID-19 showed improvement in functional fitness within 1 year after discharge, active intervention should be applied to help their recovery if necessary. It is of vital significance to continue monitoring the functional fitness, antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and immunological indicators after 1 year of discharge from hospital in HCWs with severe COVID-19.
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