Skip to main content

01.12.2018 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 1/2018

Cytokines in relation to hCG are significantly altered in asymptomatic women with miscarriage – a pilot study

Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology > Ausgabe 1/2018
Alexander Freis, Janina Schlegel, Volker Daniel, Julia Jauckus, Thomas Strowitzki, Ariane Germeyer



Spontaneous abortion is one of the most common complications in early pregnancy. A preventive test to identify women who will experience a miscarriage, even before first symptoms occur, is not established. Activation of maternal immunological tolerance seems to be essential for early fetal development and various cytokines have been described in different stages of pregnancy. Therefore, we aimed to investigate if chemokine levels at the time of pregnancy testing relative to human Choriogonadotropin (hCG) are altered in patients who will experience a miscarriage in this pregnancy.


We obtained blood samples from 39 women. Dependent on the follow-up, patients with a positive pregnancy test were subsequently divided in two groups: ongoing pregnancy (n = 22) and miscarriage (n = 17) in this pregnancy. Immunological and endocrine profiling of maternal plasma at the time of pregnancy testing (5th week of gestation) was performed for each group at the time of pregnancy test using Multiplex and ELISA analysis.


hCG was significantly decreased in patients with abortion whereas levels of IL-1ra, MIP-1a and TNF-alpha were significantly increased. GCSF/ IL-1ra-ratio was 1.66-fold increased in patients with ongoing pregnancy. TGF-beta /MIP1a-ratio was significantly 3.45-times higher in patients with miscarriage. Comparing patients with ongoing pregnancy to patients experiencing a miscarriage, we could demonstrate significant alterations of the ratios MIP1a/hCG, IL-1ra/hCG, TNFalpha/hCG, MCP1/hCG, IL-6/hCG, TPO/hCG and TGF-beta1/hCG. The strongest effects were seen for the ratio MIP1a/hCG, IL-1ra/hCG and TNFalpha/hCG.


We have shown that cytokines in relation to hCG after 4 weeks of gestation are significantly altered in women with miscarriage, promising potential as a prognostic biomarker.
Über diesen Artikel

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 1/2018

Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 1/2018 Zur Ausgabe

Neu im Fachgebiet Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe

Mail Icon II Newsletter

Bestellen Sie unseren kostenlosen Newsletter Update Gynäkologie und bleiben Sie gut informiert – ganz bequem per eMail.