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23.08.2017 | Original Article | Ausgabe 3/2017 Open Access

Sport Sciences for Health 3/2017

Different training responses to eccentric endurance exercise at low and moderate altitudes in pre-diabetic men: a pilot study

Sport Sciences for Health > Ausgabe 3/2017
Kultida Klarod, Marc Philippe, Hannes Gatterer, Martin Burtscher
Wichtige Hinweise
Kultida Klarod and Marc Philippe contributed equally to the paper.


This pilot study aimed (a) to evaluate the effects of eccentric exercise training at low and moderate altitudes on physical fitness in pre-diabetic men and (b) to establish whether or not oxidative stress levels and antioxidant status were associated with performance improvements. In this crossover trial, five pre-diabetic men conducted nine downhill walking sessions (3 days/week, 3 consecutive weeks) at low altitude (from 1360 to 850 m) and one year later at moderate altitude (from 2447 to 2000 m). Exercise testing and the determination of parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity were performed pre- and post-training. The biological antioxidant activity of plasma (BAP) increased after eccentric training at moderate altitude (p < 0.001), whereas diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs) remained unchanged. Also, the BAP/dROMs ratio increased only after training at moderate-altitude training (p = 0.009). Maximum power output improved after training at low altitude and the changes were significantly related to baseline BAP/dROMs ratio (r = 0.90). No decrease was seen for fasting plasma glucose. Eccentric exercise training in pre-diabetic men improved performance only when performed at low altitude and this improvement was positively related to the baseline BAP/dROMs ratio. In contrast, 3 weeks of eccentric exercise training increased BAP levels and the BAP/dROMs ratio only at moderate altitude without improving the performance. Thus, one might speculate that the BAP/dROMs ratio has to increase before performance improvements occur at moderate altitude.

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