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27.02.2019 | Original Article | Ausgabe 12/2019

Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 12/2019

Drain Contamination after Distal Pancreatectomy: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Association with Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula

Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery > Ausgabe 12/2019
Feng Yang, Chen Jin, Sijie Hao, Deliang Fu
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11605-019-04155-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Supported by the National Key R&D Program of China No.2017YFC1308604 (Dr Yang).

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Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.



Distal pancreatectomy (DP) remains associated with significant morbidity, but little data is available about the clinical significance of drain contamination. We explored the incidence, risk factors, and association with surgical outcomes of positive drainage culture (PDC) after DP. In addition, the predictive capacity of early PDC for postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) was evaluated.


We retrospectively analyzed our prospectively collected database of patients who underwent DP between January 2005 and December 2015. Surveillance drainage cultures for microorganisms were conducted until drain removal or positive culture. The relationships between clinical variables and PDC were examined.


Of 480 consecutive cases who underwent DP, 176 (36.7%) had PDC. One hundred twelve patients (23.3%) developed POPF according to the 2016 ISGPS definition, with the 90-day mortality rate of 0.2%. Staphylococcus spp. was the most frequent isolate. Thirty-eight (21.6%) patients had PDC within 3 days after surgery, and 129 (73.3%) within the first 7 days of operation. Body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 and massive intraoperative blood loss were independent predictors for PDC. PDC had a negative impact on surgical outcomes, including POPF. Early PDC was identified as a newly independent risk factor for POPF. Compared with other microorganisms, those contaminated with Staphylococcus and Klebsiella had higher incidences of POPF.


PDC occurs commonly after DP and plays a critical role in the development of surgical morbidities including POPF. Extreme caution is warranted in patients involving contamination with specific types of microorganisms.

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