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29.04.2019 | Original Contributions | Ausgabe 8/2019

Obesity Surgery 8/2019

Dynamic Adaptive Changes of the Ileum Transposed to the Proximal Small Intestine in Rats

Obesity Surgery > Ausgabe 8/2019
Chang Ho Ahn, Sehyun Chae, Tae Jung Oh, Daehee Hwang, Young Min Cho
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11695-019-03858-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Chang Ho Ahn and Sehyun Chae contributed equally to this work.

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Ileal transposition (IT) is an experimental surgery to investigate the role of the distal ileum in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. To systematically investigate the dynamic adaptation process of the ileum after IT, we performed transcriptome analyses of the transposed ileum compared with the ileum in situ at different postoperative time points.


Sprague-Dawley rats fed a chow diet underwent IT or sham surgery. One and 4 weeks after IT or sham surgery, total RNA was extracted from the ileal tissue and subjected to transcriptome analyses using microarray.


Principal component analysis showed that the difference between weeks 1 and 4 was the largest, and the differences between the IT and sham groups were larger in week 4 than in week 1. We identified 1792 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between IT and sham ileal tissues, including 659 and 1133 DEGs in weeks 1 and 4, respectively. Interestingly, only 45 and 24 DEGs were commonly up- or downregulated in weeks 1 and 4, indicating a marked transition during the adaptation process. Functional enrichment and network analyses showed that structural adaptation predominantly occurred in week 1, while metabolic and immune adaptations predominantly occurred in week 4. These analyses further revealed potential components that modulate structural adaptation (e.g., extracellular matrix) in week 1 and metabolic (e.g., glucose transporter) and immune (e.g., Th17 cells) adaptations in week 4.


The transposed distal ileum underwent dynamic adaptation processes that may help explain the metabolic changes after RYGB.

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Supplementary Method. Detailed protocol of Histology and immunohistochemistry, analysis of gene expression data, and network analysis. (DOCX 30 kb)
High resolution image (TIF 9417 kb)
Supplementary Table S1. Primers for qRT-PCR analysis of key genes. (DOCX 12 kb)
Supplementary Table S2. List of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). For each DEG, the Entrez ID, gene symbol (HUGO), and gene description are shown together with the log2-fold-change and false discovery rate from the comparisons of the IT and sham groups in weeks 1 and 4 after surgery. Additionally, the cluster (C1-8) to which the DEG belongs and whether the DEG showed up-regulation (1), down-regulation (-1), or no change in the comparisons are noted. (XLSX 206 kb)
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