The objective of this study was to determine the influence of loading frequency on the failure of articular cartilage-on-bone specimens under three-point bending.
In this study, cyclic three-point bending was used to introduce failure into cartilage-on-bone specimens at varying loading frequencies. Sinusiodally varying maximum compressive loads in the range 40–130 N were applied to beam-shaped cartilage-on-bone specimens at frequencies of 1, 10, 50 and 100 Hz.
The number of cycles to failure decreased when loading frequency increased from normal and above gait (1 and 10 Hz) to impulsive loading frequencies (50 and 100 Hz). It was found that 67 and 27% of the specimens reached run-out at loading of 10,000 cycles at frequencies of 1 and 10 Hz, respectively. However, 0% of the specimens reached run-out at loading frequencies of 50 and 100 Hz.
The results indicate that increasing the loading frequency reduces the ability of specimens to resist fracture during bending. The findings underline the importance of the loading frequency concerning the failure of articular cartilage-on-bone and it may have implications in the early onset of osteoarthritis.
Seedhom BB. Conditioning of cartilage during normal activities is an important factor in the development of osteoarthritis. Rheumatology. 2006;146–9.
Buckwalter JA. Mechanical injuries of articular cartilage. Iowa Orthop J. 1992;12:50–7. PubMedCentral
Stockwell RA. Cartilage failure in osteoarthritis: relevance of normal structure and function. A Review Clinic Anat. 1991;4:161–91. CrossRef
Freeman MAR. Modern trends in orthopaedics. London: Butterworths; 1972. p. 40.
Weightman B. In vitro fatigue testing of articular cartilage. Ann Rheum Dis. 1975;34:108–10.
Radin EL, Whittle MW, Yang KH, Jefferson R, Rodgers MM, Kish VL, O’Connor JJ. The heelstrike transient, its relationship with the angular velocity of the shank, and effects of quadriceps paralysis. In: Lantz SA, King AI, editors. Advances in bioengineering. New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineering; 1986. p. 121–3.
Baltzopoulos V. Muscular and tibiofemoral joint forces during isokinetic concentric knee extension. Clin Biomech. 1995;10:208–14. CrossRef
Radin EL, Ehrlich MG, Chernack R, Abernethy P, Paul IL, Rose RM. Effect of repetitive impulsive loading on the knee joints of rabbits. Clin Orthop. 1978;131:288–93.
Seldin ED, Hirsch C. Factors affecting the determination of physical the properties of femoral cortical bone. Acta Orthop Scand. 1966;37:29–48. CrossRef
Westwater JW. Flexural testing of plastic materials. ASTM proc. 1949;49:1092–118.
ASTM standard D7774–2012, Standard test method for flexural fatigue properties of plastics. ASTM standards International.
Barker MK, Seedhom BB. The relationship of the compressive modulus of articular cartilage with its deformation response to cyclic loading: does cartilage optimize its modulus so as to minimize the strains arising in it due to the prevalent loading regime? Rheumatology. 2001;40:274–84. CrossRefPubMed
Lafferty JF, Raju PV. The influence of stress frequency on the fatigue strength of cortical bone. J Biomech Eng. 1979;101:112–3. CrossRef
Lafferty JF. Analytical model of the fatigue characteristics of bone. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1978;49:170–4. PubMed
Ferry JD. Viscoelastic properties of polymers. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1980. p.3.
Summers GC, Merrill A, Sharif M, Adams MA. Swelling of articular cartilage depends on the integrity of adjacent cartilage and bone. Biorheology. 2008;45:365–74. PubMed
Aspden RM. Constraining the lateral dimensions of uniaxially loaded materials increases the calculated strength and stiffness: application to muscle and bone. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 1990;1:100–4. CrossRef
Edelsten L, Jeffrey JE, Burgin LV, Aspden RM. Viscoelastic deformation of articular cartilage during impact loading. Soft Matter. 2010;6:5206–12. CrossRef
Aspden RM, Hukins DWL. Collagen organization in articular cartilage, determined by x-ray diffraction, and its relationship to tissue function. Proc R Soc Lond Ser B. 1981;212:299–304. CrossRef
Byers PD. What is osteoarthritic cartilage? In: Ali SY, Elves MW, Leaback DH, editors. What is osteoarthritic cartilage? In proceedings of the symposium, normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage. London: Institute of orthopaedics; 1974. p. 131–9.
Zimmerman NB, Smith DG, Pottenger LA, Cooperman DR. Mechanical disruption of human patellar cartilage by repetitive loading in vitro. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1988;229:302–7.
Fick JM, Espino DM. Articular cartilage surface rupture during compression: Investigating the effects of tissue hydration in relation to matrix health. J Mech Behav Biomed. 2011;4:1311–7. CrossRef
Kennedy JC, Grainger RW, McGraw RW. Osteochondral fractures of the femoral condyles. J Bone Joint Surg. 1966;48:436–40. CrossRef
Johnson-Nurse C, Dandy DJ. Fracture-separation of articular cartilage in the adult knee. J Bone Joint Surg. 1985;67:42–3.
Flachsmann ER, Broom ND, Oloyede A. A biomechanical investigation of unconstrained shear failure of the osteochondral region under impact loading. Clinic Biomech. 1995;10:156–65. CrossRef
Parks S, Hung CT, Ateshian GA. Mechanical response of bovine articular cartilage under dynamic unconfined compression loading at physiological stress level. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2004;12:65–73. CrossRef
- Fatigue strength of bovine articular cartilage-on-bone under three-point bending: the effect of loading frequency
D. M. Espino
D. E. T. Shepherd
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Mail Icon II