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To survey by measuring patient’s functional status which is crucial when end-stage renal disease patients begin a dialysis program. The influence of the disease on patients can be examined by the measurement of Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) scores, together with a quality of life survey, and clinical variables.
The details for the dataset in the study were collected from patients receiving regular hemodialysis (HD) in one hospital, which were available retrospectively for 1166 patients during the 5-year study period. KPS scores were applied for quantifying functional status. To identify risk factors for functional status, clinical factors including demographics, laboratory data, and HD vintage were selected. This study applied a classification and regression tree approach (CART) and logistic regression to determine risk factors on functional impairment among HD patients.
Ten risk factors were identified by CART and regression model (age, primary kidney disease subclass, treatment years, hemoglobin, albumin, creatinine, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone, ferritin, and cardiothoracic ratio). The results of logistic regression with selected interaction models showed older age or higher hematocrit, blood urea nitrogen, and glucose levels could significantly increase the log-odds of obtaining low KPS scores at in-person visits.
In interaction results, the combination of older age with higher albumin level and higher creatinine level with longer HD treatment years could significantly decrease the log-odds of a low KPS score assessment during in-person visits. Age, hemoglobin, albumin, urea, creatinine levels, primary kidney disease subclass, and HD duration are the major determinants for functional status in HD patients.