Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been approved for the treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) in term and near-term newborns. Its role in the management of persistent pulmonary hypertension in preterm infants is not clear. Although guidelines do not exist, some studies have shown that iNO could be used as a rescue therapy in preterm neonate with severe pulmonary hypertension.
We describe the case of a preterm neonate, born at 30 + 1 weeks of gestation, with hypoxic respiratory failure not responding to maximal conventional therapy. On the third day of life echocardiography showed severe pulmonary hypertension with right to left shunt and therapy with iNO was started. We achieved a rapid improvement in clinical conditions and pulmonary pressure normalized after 42 h of treatment.
Moving on a case by case basis, treatment with iNO should be considered as a rescue therapy in preterm newborns with acute hypoxic respiratory failure caused by severe pulmonary hypertension.