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01.12.2008 | Review | Ausgabe 1/2008 Open Access

Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 1/2008

Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance: still tantalizing

Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance > Ausgabe 1/2008
Kanishka Ratnayaka, Anthony Z Faranesh, Michael A Guttman, Ozgur Kocaturk, Christina E Saikus, Robert J Lederman
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1532-429X-10-62) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

NIH and Siemens Medical Systems have a collaborative research and development agreement for interventional CMR and multimodality image fusion. MAG, OK, and RJL are inventors on patents or patent applications, assigned to NIH, on MR techniques or devices with applications in iCMR. No other financial conflicts of interest are identified.

Authors' contributions

KR and RJL drafted the initial review article, RJL performed the literature search, AZF, MAG, OK, and CES contributed article content and participated in editing and final drafting of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


The often touted advantages of MR guidance remain largely unrealized for cardiovascular interventional procedures in patients. Many procedures have been simulated in animal models. We argue these opportunities for clinical interventional MR will be met in the near future. This paper reviews technical and clinical considerations and offers advice on how to implement a clinical-grade interventional cardiovascular MR (iCMR) laboratory. We caution that this reflects our personal view of the "state of the art."
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