The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-131) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors have no competing interests to declare.
C-CL and T-CL contributed equally to the design of the study and direction of its implementation, including supervision of the field activities, quality assurance and control. P-TK, C-CC, C-SL, W-YL and C-CL supervise the field activities. C-CL, S-LRK and T-CL helped conduct the literature review and prepare the Methods and the Discussion sections of the text. S-LRK, C-IL and S-YY designed the study’s analytic strategy and conducted the data analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is a powerful predictor of mortality in diabetic patients with limited proteinuria data. In this study, we tested whether concomitant proteinuria increases the risk of mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes.
Participants included 6523 patients > 30 years with type 2 diabetes who were enrolled in a management program of a medical center before 2007. Renal function was assessed by eGFR according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation for Chinese. Proteinuria was assessed by urine dipstick.
A total of 573 patients (8.8%) died over a median follow-up time of 4.91 years (ranging from 0.01 year to 6.42 years). The adjusted expanded cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality rates among patients with proteinuria were more than three folds higher for those with an eGFR of 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or less compared with those with an eGFR of 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 or greater [hazard ratio, HR, 3.15 (95% confidence interval, CI, 2.0–5.1)]. The magnitude of adjusted HR was smaller in patients without proteinuria [1.98 (95% CI, 1.1–3.7)]. An eGFR of 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 to 89 mL/min/1.73 m2 significantly affected all-cause mortality and mortality from expanded CVD-related causes only in patients with proteinuria. Similarly, proteinuria affected all outcomes only in patients with an eGFR of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2.
The risks of all-cause mortality, as well as expanded and non-expanded mortality from CVD-related causes associated with proteinuria or an eGFR of 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 or greater are independently increased. Therefore, the use of proteinuria measurements with eGFR increases the precision of risk stratification for mortality.
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- Joint relationship between renal function and proteinuria on mortality of patients with type 2 diabetes: The Taichung Diabetes Study
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