MRG conceived the study and the sample selection; MP carried out the molecular study, followed the patients, draft the manuscript, analyzed the clinical data and conceived the discussion; ST draft the manuscript, revised the literature, analyzed the data and conceived the discussion; GG draft the manuscript; GM coordinated the research. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The aim of this study was to assess the level of salivary immunoglobulins and periodontal status in smokers and non-smokers.
Unstimulated saliva of 30 subjects (mean age 24.2 ± 3.5 years) who were smokers (test group) and of 30 subjects (mean age 25.3 ± 3.8 years) who were non-smokers (control group) was collected and centrifugated; IgA, IgG, and IgM were measured with the colorimetric immunoenzymatic method. Moreover, the following periodontal clinical parameters were recorded for each subject: plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL).
A significantly (p< 0.05) lower Ig level was observed in smoking patients (IgA: 20.0 ± 1.2 mg/dl; IgM: 19.5 ± 1.6 mg/dl; IgG: 8.1 ± 1.4 mg/dl) compared to levels in the non-smoking control group (IgA: 234.1 ± 65.2 mg/dl; IgM: 121.0 ± 31.7 mg/dl; IgG: 1049.4 ± 102 mg/dl). In the test group, PI (2.2 ± 0.3), GI (2.4 ±0.5), PD (49.3 ± 9.2%), and CAL (49.3 ± 4.6%) were higher (p< 0.05) than those observed in the control group (PI: 0.8 ± 0.4; GI: 0.7 ± 0.3; PD: 10.6 ± 2.4%; CAL: 3.1 ± 0.8%).
Smoking subjects showed lower levels of salivary IgA, IgG, and IgM and a worse periodontal condition than non-smoking subjects. On the base of our study, as smoking subjects also had lower levels of IgA, IgG, and IgM in their saliva than non-smoking subjects, despite the fact that there is little evidence that the salivary Igs have a protective action against periodontitis and that the whole saliva does not result in whole from the salivary glands, it can be concluded that the deteriorated periodontal health conditions of these patients can be attributed in part to a lowering of the host’s defense due to a decrease in the quantity of Igs in salivary fluid.
Giuca MR, Giuggioli E, Metelli MR, Pasini M, Iezzi G, D Ercole S, Tripodi D: Effects of cigarette smoke on salivary superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2010, 24 (3): 359-366. PubMed
Sutton JD, Ranney LM, Wilder RS, Sanders AE: Environmental tobacco smoke and periodontitis in U.S. Non-smokers. J Dent Hyg. 2012, 86 (3): 185-194. PubMed
Ellis RG: The classification and treatment of injuries to the teeth of children. Ed. 4. 1960, Chicago: Year Book Publishers Inc.
Haber J: Smoking is a major risk factor for periodontitis. Curr Opin Periodontol. 1994, 12-18.
Hornick B: Diet and nutrition implications for oral health. J Dent Hyg. 2002, 76 (1): 67-78. PubMed
Gala S, Pesek F, Murray J, Kavanagh C, Graham S, Walsh M: Design and pilot evaluation of an Internet spit tobacco cessation program. J Dent Hyg. 2008, 82 (1): 11- PubMed
Barge K: First drag of cigarette may lead to addiction. J Dent Hyg. 2007, 81 (4): 69-
Baldini A, Nota A, Fanti E, Martelli FS, Ottomano C, Lippi G: Association between periodontal disease and Interleukin-1β +3953 and vitamin D receptor Taq1 genetic polymorphisms in an Italian caucasian population. Ann Stomatol (Roma). 2013, 4 (2): 191-195.
Rashkova MP, Toncheva AA: Gingival disease and secretory immunoglobulin a in non-stimulated saliva in children. Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2010, 52 (4): 48-55.
Tripodi D, D’Ercole S, Pasini M, Nastasio S, Bonini S, Giuca MR: Inflammatory and immunitary modifications in saliva of subjects with labial and tongue piercing. Eur J Infl. 2011, 9 (2): 175-183.
Marchetti E, Monaco A, Procaccini L, Mummolo S, Gatto R, Tetè S, Baldini A, Tecco S, Marzo G: Periodontal disease: the influence of metabolic syndrome. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2012, 9 (1): 88-10.1186/1743-7075-9-88. CrossRef
- Levels of salivary immunoglobulins and periodontal evaluation in smoking patients
Maria Rita Giuca
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin
Mail Icon II