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01.12.2019 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2019 Open Access

BMC Pediatrics 1/2019

Optimizing gentamicin conventional and extended interval dosing in neonates using Monte Carlo simulation – a retrospective study

BMC Pediatrics > Ausgabe 1/2019
Monique Bergenwall, Sandra A. N. Walker, Marion Elligsen, Dolores C. Iaboni, Carla Findlater, Winnie Seto, Eugene Ng
Wichtige Hinweise
Monique Bergenwall and Sandra A. N. Walker contributed equally to this work.

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Although aminoglycosides are routinely used in neonates, controversy exists regarding empiric dosing regimens. The objectives were to determine gentamicin pharmacokinetics in neonates, and develop initial mg/kg dosing recommendations that optimized target peak and trough concentration attainment for conventional and extended-interval dosing (EID) regimens.


Patient demographics and steady-state gentamicin concentration data were retrospectively collected for 60 neonates with no renal impairment admitted to a level III neonatal intensive care unit. Mean pharmacokinetics were calculated and multiple linear regression was performed to determine significant covariates of clearance (L/h) and volume of distribution (L). Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis identified breakpoints for significant covariates. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) was used to determine optimal dosing recommendations for each CART-identified sub-group.


Gentamicin clearance and volume of distribution were significantly associated with weight at gentamicin initiation. CART-identified breakpoints for weight at gentamicin initiation were: ≤ 850 g, 851-1200 g, and > 1200 g. MCS identified that a conventional dose of gentamicin 3.5 mg/kg given every 48 h or an EID of 8-9 mg/kg administered every 72 h in neonates weighing ≤ 850 g, and every 24 and 48 h, respectively, in neonates weighing 851-1200 g, provided the best probability of attaining conventional (peak: 5-10 mg/L and trough: ≤ 2 mg/L) and EID targets (peak:12-20 mg/L, trough:≤ 0.5 mg/L). Insufficient sample size in the > 1200 g neonatal group precluded further investigation of this weight category.


This study provides initial gentamicin dosing recommendations that optimize target attainment for conventional and EID regimens in neonates weighing ≤ 1200 g. Prospective validation and empiric dose optimization for neonates > 1200 g is needed.
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