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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Urology 1/2015

Prospective evaluation of plasma levels of ANGPT2, TuM2PK, and VEGF in patients with renal cell carcinoma

BMC Urology > Ausgabe 1/2015
Bishoy A Gayed, Jessica Gillen, Alana Christie, Samuel Peña-Llopis, Xian-Jin Xie, Jingsheng Yan, Jose A Karam, Ganesh Raj, Arthur I Sagalowsky, Yair Lotan, Vitaly Margulis, James Brugarolas
Wichtige Hinweise
Bishoy A Gayed, Jessica Gillen and Alana Christie contributed equally to this work.

Competing interests

No authors have any direct or indirect commercial financial incentive associated with publishing the article. The present manuscript or portions thereof are not under consideration by another journal or electronic publication and have not been previously published. All authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

BG conception/design; analysis/interpretation; writing. JG conception/design; analysis/interpretation; writing. AC analysis/interpretation; writing. SPL - conception/design; analysis/interpretation; writing. XJX - conception/design; analysis/interpretation; writing. JY - conception/design; analysis/interpretation; writing. JK - conception/design; analysis/interpretation; writing. GR - analysis/interpretation; writing. AS - analysis/interpretation; writing. YL - analysis/interpretation; writing. VM - design, analysis/interpretation; writing. JB - conception/design; analysis/interpretation; writing and funding. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



To assess pathological correlations and temporal trends of Angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and M2 Pyruvate kinase (TuM2PK), markers of tumor vascular development and metabolism, in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC).


We prospectively collected plasma samples from 89 patients who underwent surgical/ablative therapy for RCC and 38 patients with benign disease (nephrolithiasis, hematuria without apparent neoplastic origin, or renal cysts). In RCC patients, marker levels were compared between at least 1 preoperative and 1 postoperative time point generally 3 weeks after surgery. Marker temporal trends were assessed using the Wilcoxon sign-rank test. Plasma VEGF, ANGPT2, and TuM2PK levels were determined by ELISA and tested for association with pathological variables.


Median age was comparable between groups. 83/89 (93%) of the cohort underwent surgical extirpation. 82% of the tumors were organ confined (T ≤2, N0). Only ANGPT2 exhibited significantly elevated preoperative levels in patients with RCC compared to benign disease (p = 0.046). Elevated preoperative levels of ANGPT2 and TuM2PK significantly correlated with increased tumor size and advanced grade (p < 0.05). Chromophobe RCC exhibited higher levels of ANGPT2 compared to other histologies (p < 0.05). A decline in marker level after surgery was not observed, likely due to the timing of the analyses.


Our results suggest that ANGPT2 is a marker of RCC. Additionally, ANGPT2 and TuM2PK significantly correlated with several adverse pathological features. Further studies are needed to determine clinical applicability.
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