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02.02.2019 | Review

Saliva as a Diagnostic Tool in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma – a Systematic Review with Meta Analysis

Zeitschrift:
Pathology & Oncology Research
Autoren:
K. Hema Shree, Pratibha Ramani, Herald Sherlin, Gheena Sukumaran, Gifrrina Jeyaraj, K. R. Don, Archana Santhanam, Abilasha Ramasubramanian, R. Sundar
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Abstract

Whole saliva is mainly composed of fluid produced by major and minor salivary glands. Major salivary glands including parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands, are known to secrete fluid transported from serum as well as surrounding glandular tissues [1]. Beside the secretions from salivary glands, oral mucosa, periodontium, as well as oral microflora also contribute to the final content of whole saliva [1]. Whole saliva therefore represents a complex balance among local and systemic sources [2]. This allows for the application of saliva in the diagnosis not only for salivary gland disorders but also for oral diseases and systemic conditions [2]. The role of saliva as a diagnostic tool in detecting Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Articles published in PUBMED, EMBASE, COCHRANE, GOOGLE, manual search and back references of the articles for last 5 years extracted 77 articles. Studies which considered saliva as a diagnostic tool were included. Statistical analysis with Receivers Operating Curve to establish sensitivity and specificity of the salivary biomarkers as a diagnostic tool to detect Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma were included for meta analysis. The measure of effect with 95% confidence interval were meta analysed for 9 articles in which 308 healthy individuals compared with 340 patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Highly sensitive salivary biomarkers for detecting Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma were MMP-9, Chemerin, Choline + Betaine + Pipecolinic Acid + I – Carnitine(confidence interval ranges from 0.83–1.0). The narrow confidence interval of 0.95 + (0.88–1.00) was seen for MMP-9 followed by 1.00 + (0.78–1.00) for chemerin. Highly specific biomarkers for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma were MMP-9 (specificity −100%,), Chemerin(specificity-100%), over expressed mi RNA 136 with specificity of 0.88(0.69–0.97), under expressed mi RNA 27B with specificity of 1.0(0.66–1.00). Saliva can be used as a diagnostic tool with highly sensitive and specific markers namely MMP-9, Chemerin for early detection of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

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