Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of death worldwide and occurs with variable severity. There are few studies focused on the expression of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and syndecan-4 in patients with CAP.
A prospective, multi-centre study was conducted between January 2014 and December 2016. A total of 103 patients with severe CAP (SCAP), 149 patients with non-SCAP, and 30 healthy individuals were enrolled. Clinical data were recorded for all enrolled patients. Serum suPAR and syndecan-4 levels were determined by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The t test and Mann–Whitney U test were used to compare between two groups; one-way analysis of variance and the Kruskal–Wallis test were used to compare multiple groups. Correlations were assessed using Pearson and Spearman tests. Area under the curve (AUCs), optimal threshold values, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. Survival curves were constructed and compared by log-rank test. Regression analyses assessed the effect of multiple variables on 30-day survival.
suPAR levels increased in all patients with CAP, especially in severe cases. Syndecan-4 levels decreased in patients with CAP, especially in non-survivors. suPAR and syndecan-4 levels were positively and negatively correlated with severity scores, respectively. suPAR exhibited high accuracy in predicting SCAP among patients with CAP with an AUC of 0.835 (p < 0.001). In contrast, syndecan-4 exhibited poor diagnostic value for predicting SCAP (AUC 0.550, p = 0.187). The AUC for predicting mortality in patients with SCAP was 0.772 and 0.744 for suPAR and syndecan-4, respectively; the respective prediction threshold values were 10.22 ng/mL and 6.68 ng/mL. Addition of both suPAR and syndecan-4 to the Pneumonia Severity Index significantly improved their prognostic accuracy, with an AUC of 0.885. Regression analysis showed that suPAR ≥10.22 ng/mL and syndecan-4 ≤ 6.68 ng/mL were reliable independent markers for prediction of 30-day survival.
suPAR exhibits high accuracy for both diagnosis and prognosis of SCAP. Syndecan-4 can reliably predict mortality in patients with SCAP. Addition of both suPAR and syndecan-4 to a clinical scoring method could improve prognostic accuracy.
ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03093220. Registered on 28 March 2017 (retrospectively registered).
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- Serum suPAR and syndecan-4 levels predict severity of community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective, multi-centre study
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