While factors affecting smoking are well documented, the role of religion has received little attention. This national study aims to assess the extent to which religious affiliation is associated with current-smoking and ever-smoking, controlling for age, sex, ethnicity and socio-economic status. Variations between adult and youth populations are examined using secondary analysis of individual-level data from 5 years of the Health Survey for England for adult (aged >20, n = 39,837) and youth (aged 16–20, n = 2355) samples. Crude prevalence statistics are contrasted with binary logistic models for current-smoking and ever-smoking in the adult and youth samples. Analyses suggest that Muslims smoke substantially less than Christians. Highest levels of smoking characterise people not professing any religion. Associations between smoking and the Muslim religion attenuate to statistical insignificance in the face of ethnic and socio-economic factors. An association between smoking and the absence of a religious affiliation is sustained. An understanding of the association between smoking and religion is essential to the development of tobacco control programmes.
Anthony, D., Chowdary, Q., Dyson, P., & Thankappan, K. (2013). Does ethnicity or religion affect and/or explain the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, and smoking behaviour? Journal of Diversity and Equality in Health and Care,10(1), 31–40.
Becker, J., Schaub, M. P., Gmel, G., & Haug, S. (2015). Cannabis use and other predictors of the onset of daily cigarette use in young men: What matters most? Results from a longitudinal study Health behavior, health promotion and society. BMC Public Health,15(1), 843. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-2194-3. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Byron, M. J., Cohen, J. E., Gittelsohn, J., Frattaroli, S., Nuryunawati, R., & Jernigan, D. H. (2015). Influence of religious organisations’ statements on compliance with a smoke-free law in Bogor, Indonesia: A qualitative study. British Medical Journal Open,5(12), e008111. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008111.
Francis, L. (2008). Self-assigned religious affiliation: A study among adolescents in England and Wales. In B. Spalek & A. Imtoual (Eds.), Religion, spirituality and the social sciences: Challenging marginalisation (pp. 149–161). Bristol: Policy Press.
Hyland, A., Borland, R., Li, Q., Yong, H. H., McNeill, A., Fong, G. T., et al. (2006). Individual-level predictors of cessation behaviours among participants in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Tobacco Control,15(suppl 3), iii83–iii94. doi: 10.1136/tc.2005.013516. PubMedPubMedCentral
Jen, M. H., Jones, K., & Johnson, R. J. (2009). Compositional and contextual approaches to the study of health behaviour and outcomes: Using multi-level modelling to evaluate Wilkinson’s income inequality hypothesis. Health & Place,15(1), 198–203. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.04.005. CrossRef
Khayat, M. (Ed.). (2000). The right path to health: Health education through religion, islamic ruling on smoking. Alexandria: World Health Organisation Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean.
Myung, S., Seo, H., Cheong, Y., Park, S., Lee, W., & Fong, G. (2012). Association of sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions with intention to quit smoking in Korean adults: Findings from the ITC Korea Survey. Journal of Epidemiology,22(1), 21–27. doi: 10.2188/jea.JE20110026. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
NatCen Social Research, Royal Free and University College Medical School. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health. (2015a). Health Survey for England, 2010. [data collection]. 3rd edition. UK Data Service. SN: 6986. doi: 10.5255/UKDA-SN-6986-3.
NatCen Social Research, University College London. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health. (2013). Health Survey for England, 2011. [data collection]. UK Data Service. SN: 7260. doi: 10.5255/UKDA-SN-7260-1.
NatCen Social Research, University College London. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health. (2014). Health Survey for England, 2012. [data collection]. UK Data Service. SN: 7480. doi: 10.5255/UKDA-SN-7480-1.
NatCen Social Research, University College London. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health. (2015b). Health Survey for England, 2013. [data collection]. UK Data Service. SN: 7649. doi: 10.5255/UKDA-SN-7649-1.
NatCen Social Research, University College London. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health. (2016). Health Survey for England, 2014. [data collection]. UK Data Service. SN: 7919. doi: 10.5255/UKDA-SN-7919-1.
Office for National Statistics. (2012). Ethnicity and national identity in England and Wales 2011. London: ONS.
Schoenberg, N. E., Studts, C. R., Shelton, B. J., Liu, M., Clayton, R., Bispo, J. B., et al. (2016). A randomized controlled trial of a faith-placed, lay health advisor delivered smoking cessation intervention for rural residents. Preventive Medicine Reports,3, 317–323. doi: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2016.03.006. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Wang, X., & Jang, S. J. (2016). The relationship between religion and deviance in a largely irreligious country: Findings from the 2010 China General Social Survey. Deviant Behavior. doi: 10.1080/01639625.2016.1241059.
Wray-Lake, L., Maggs, J. L., Johnston, L. D., Bachman, J. G., O’Malley, P. M., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2012). Associations between community attachments and adolescent substance use in nationally representative samples. Journal of Adolescent Health,51(4), 325–331. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.12.030. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Yong, H. H., Hamann, S. L., Borland, R., Fong, G. T., & Omar, M. (2009). Adult smokers’ perception of the role of religion and religious leadership on smoking and association with quitting: A comparison between Thai Buddhists and Malaysian Muslims. Social Science and Medicine,69(7), 1025–1031. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.07.042. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Yong, H. H., Savvas, S., Borland, R., Thrasher, J., Sirirassamee, B., & Omar, M. (2013). Secular versus religious norms against smoking: Which is more important as a driver of quitting behaviour among Muslim Malaysian and Buddhist Thai smokers? International Journal of Behavioral Medicine,20(2), 252–258. doi: 10.1007/s12529-012-9225-6. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
- Smoking and Religion: Untangling Associations Using English Survey Data
- Springer US
- Journal of Religion and Health
Print ISSN: 0022-4197
Elektronische ISSN: 1573-6571