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01.06.2015 | Clinical Article - Spine | Ausgabe 6/2015

Acta Neurochirurgica 6/2015

Subsidence as of 12 months after single-level anterior cervical inter-body fusion. Is it related to clinical outcomes?

Zeitschrift:
Acta Neurochirurgica > Ausgabe 6/2015
Autoren:
Chang-Hyun Lee, Ki-Jeong Kim, Seung-Jae Hyun, Jin S. Yeom, Tae-Ahn Jahng, Hyun-Jib Kim

Abstract

Background

Subsidence is a frequent phenomenon in the interbody fusion process in patients with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). There is little evidence of whether subsidence in the cervical spine has any impact on clinical outcomes.

Objectives

The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation of subsidence and clinical outcomes after ACDF and to consider reasons subsidence might not cause unfavorable clinical outcomes.

Methods

A total of 158 consecutive patients who underwent single-level ACDF were included. The patients were divided into a subsidence group (S-group) and a no subsidence group (N-group), with subsidence defined as a decrease by ≥3 mm in total intervertebral height (TIH). We analyzed outcomes resulting from subsidence, particularly focusing on clinical outcomes and subsequent global and segmental kyphosis using a repeated measure analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA).

Results

Subsidence occurred in 74 patients (46.8 %) as of a 12-month follow-up. The S-group included 58.6 % with a stand-alone cage for interbody fusion (p = 0.002). Clinical outcomes improved significantly over time (neck pain, RM-ANOVA: F(1.3, 205) = 125.1, p < 0.001; arm pain, RM-ANOVA: F(1.3, 203) = 290.8, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in interaction with subsidence and clinical outcomes between the S- and N-group (neck pain, RM-ANOVA: F(2,153) = 1.04, p = 0.356, partial η2 = 0.229; arm pain, RM-ANOVA: F(2,153) = 0.56, p = 0.571, partial η2 = 0.142). Segmental angle increased in both groups over time and showed a statistically significant difference between the S- and N-groups (RM-ANOVA: F(3,143) = 6.148, p = 0.001, partial η2 = 0.959). Although, global cervical angle decreased generally and displayed no statically significant difference between the S- and N-group (RM-ANOVA: F(3,119) = 2.361, p = 0.075, partial η2 = 0.056).

Conclusions

Radiographic subsidence after ACDF occurred in 46.8 % patients as of 12 months after the single-level ACDF. The lack of correlation between bad clinical outcome and radiographic subsidence may be due to segmental kyphosis, preserved posterior height, and maintaining the global cervical angle.

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