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28.05.2018 | Original Article – Cancer Research | Ausgabe 8/2018

Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 8/2018

TIS21/BTG2 inhibits breast cancer growth and progression by differential regulation of mTORc1 and mTORc2–AKT1–NFAT1–PHLPP2 signaling axis

Zeitschrift:
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology > Ausgabe 8/2018
Autoren:
Santhoshkumar Sundaramoorthy, Preethi Devanand, Min Sook Ryu, Kye Yong Song, Dong Young Noh, In Kyoung Lim
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00432-018-2677-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

Purpose

It has been reported that PI3K/AKT pathway is altered in various cancers and AKT isoforms specifically regulate cell growth and metastasis of cancer cells; AKT1, but not AKT2, reduces invasion of cancer cells but maintains cancer growth. We propose here a novel mechanism of the tumor suppresser, TIS21/BTG2, that inhibits both growth and invasion of triple negative breast cancer cells via AKT1 activation by differential regulation of mTORc1 and mTORc2 activity.

Methods

Transduction of adenovirus carrying TIS21/BTG2 gene and transfection of short interfering RNAs were employed to regulate TIS21/BTG2 gene expression in various cell lines. Treatment of mTOR inhibitors and mTOR kinase assays can evaluate the role of mTORc in the regulation of AKT phosphorylation at S473 residue by TIS21/BTG2 in breast cancer cells. Open data and immunohistochemical analysis were performed to confirm the role of TIS21/BTG2 expression in various human breast cancer tissues.

Results

We observed that TIS21/BTG2 inhibited mTORc1 activity by reducing Raptor-mTOR interaction along with upregulation of tsc1 expression, which lead to significant reduction of p70S6K activation as opposed to AKT1S473, but not AKT2, phosphorylation via downregulating PHLPP2 (AKT1-specific phosphatase) in breast cancers. TIS21/BTG2-induced pAKTS473 required Rictor-bound mTOR kinase, indicating activation of mTORc2 by TIS21/BTG2 gene. Additionally, the TIS21/BTG2-induced pAKTS473 could reduce expression of NFAT1 (nuclear factor of activated T cells) and its target genes, which regulate cancer microenvironment.

Conclusions

TIS21/BTG2 significantly lost in the infiltrating ductal carcinoma, but it can inhibit cancer growth via the TIS21/BTG2tsc1/2–mTORc1–p70S6K axis and downregulate cancer progression via the TIS21/BTG2–mTORc2–AKT1–NFAT1–PHLPP2 pathway.

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Zusatzmaterial
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 79 KB)
432_2018_2677_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Supplementary material 2 (PPTX 3276 KB)
432_2018_2677_MOESM2_ESM.pptx
Literatur
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