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01.12.2012 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1/2012

Validation of the self-management ability scale (SMAS) and development and validation of a shorter scale (SMAS-S) among older patients shortly after hospitalisation

Zeitschrift:
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes > Ausgabe 1/2012
Autoren:
Jane M Cramm, Mathilde MH Strating, Paul L de Vreede, Nardi Steverink, Anna P Nieboer
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors' contributions

JC Preparation of the paper; analyses and interpretation of data; final approval of the version to be published. MS Preparation of the paper; analyses and interpretation of data; final approval of the version to be published. PV Preparation of the paper; acquisition of subjects and data; final approval of the version to be published. NS Preparation of the paper; analyses and interpretation of data; final approval of the version to be published. AN Acquisition of subjects and data; study concept and design; preparation of the paper; analyses and interpretation of data; final approval of the version to be published.

Abstract

Background

The 30-item Self-Management Ability Scale (SMAS) measures self-management abilities (SMA). Objectives of this study were to (1) validate the SMAS among older people shortly after hospitalisation and (2) shorten the SMAS while maintaining adequate validity and reliability.

Methods

Our study was conducted among older individuals (≥ 65) who had recently been discharged from a hospital. Three months after hospital admission, 296/456 patients (65% response) were interviewed in their homes. We tested the instrument by means of structural equation modelling, and examined its validity and reliability. In addition, we tested internal consistency of the SMAS and SMAS-S among a study sample of patients at risk for cardiovascular diseases.

Results

After eliminating 12 items, the confirmatory factor analyses revealed good indices of fit with the resulting 18-item SMAS (SMAS-S). To estimate construct validity of the instrument, we looked at correlations between SMAS subscale scores and overall well-being scores as measured by Social Product Function (SPF-IL) and Cantril's ladder. All SMAS subscales of the original and short version significantly correlated with SPF-IL scores (all at p ≤ 0.001) and Cantril's ladder (for the cognitive well-being subscale p ≤ 0.01; all other subscales at p ≤ 0.001). The findings indicated validity. Analyses of the SMAS and SMAS-S in the sample of patients at risk for cardiovascular diseases showed that both instruments are reliable.

Conclusions

The psychometric properties of both the SMAS and SMAS-S are good. The SMAS-S is a promising alternate instrument to evaluate self-management abilities.
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