Neurodegenerative diseases are a growing burden in modern society, thus crucially calling for the development of accurate diagnostic strategies. These diseases are currently incurable, a fact which has been attributed to their late diagnosis, after brain damage has already become widespread. An earlier and improved diagnosis is necessary for the enrolment of patients into clinical trials and can pave the way for the development of therapeutic tactics. Novel analytical techniques, such as mass spectrometry and vibrational spectroscopy, have been able to successfully detect and characterise neurodegenerative disorders. It is critical to globally support and make use of innovative basic research and techniques, which could ultimately lead to the creation of a cost-effective diagnostic test. Minimally invasive samples, such as biological fluids, have also been shown to reveal information for these diseases; utilising them could simplify sample collection/analysis and be more preferable to patients.