What is Known:
• Anxiety and fear caused by medical procedures exacerbate children’s pain and may interfere with the procedure.
• To reduce anxiety, fear, and pain and to facilitate patient’s evaluation, different non-pharmacological approaches have been proposed and positive effects of laughter and humor have been reported.
What is New:
• The presence of clowns in the waiting room and in the ED during medical evaluation and painful procedures helps to reduce children’s anxiety.