Dominika Babińska (data acquisition, data analysis and interpretation, manuscript drafting), Marcin Barczyński (study conception and design, data acquisition, data analysis and interpretation, manuscript drafting, manuscript critical revision ), Tomasz Osęka (data acquisition, data analysis and interpretation, manuscript drafting ), Maciej Śledziński (data acquisition, data analysis and interpretation, manuscript drafting ), Andrzej J. Łachiński (data analysis and interpretation, manuscript critical revision).
A comprehensive psychological comparison of preoperative stress in patients scheduled for thyroidectomy with versus without intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IONM) has never been reported. The aim of this study was to assess whether a planned utilization of IONM had any effect on the reduction of stress and anxiety level before and after thyroid surgery.
The outcomes of 32 patients scheduled for thyroidectomy with IONM were compared to the outcomes of a carefully matched control group of 39 patients operated on without IONM. All the patients were tested before the surgery and at 1–7 days postoperatively employing psychological self-report instruments: the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck Scale (FACT H&N), and the visual analog scale (VAS).
The examined groups were homogenous and carefully matched in terms of mental health (GHQ), the quality of life (FACT H&N), and the intensity of depression level (DASS). The IONM group showed a significantly lower level of “the state anxiety”(STAI) 1 day before the operation (p < 0.05), greater trust in the doctor (VAS) (p < 0.05), and greater confidence in the treatment method (VAS) as compared to the patients in the control group (p < 0.05), while no significant differences were found when the remaining items were compared.
The planned use of IONM during thyroidectomy may reduce patient anxiety before surgery. However, further research in this area is necessary to confirm this preliminary finding in a larger population of patients.
Maes M, Song C, Lin A, De Jongh R, Van Gastel A, Kenis G, Bosmans E, De Meester I, Benoy I, Neels H, Demedts P, Janca A, Scharpé S, Smith RS (1998) The effects of psychological stress on humans: increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a Th1-like response in stress-induced anxiety. Cytokine 10(4):313–318. doi: 10.1016/S0893-133X(98)00088-8CrossRefPubMed
Selye H (1974) Stress without distress. J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, pp. 137–141
Lovibond SH, Lovibond PF (1995) Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales. Psychology Foundation, Sydney
Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene R, Vagg PR, Jacobs GA (1983) Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto
Goldberg DP (1978) Manual of the general health questionnaire. NFER-Nelson, Windsor
Goldberg D, Williams P (1988) A user’s guide to the general health questionnaire. NFER-Nelson, Windsor
Makowska Z, Merecz D (2000) The usefulness of the Health Status Questionnaire: D. Goldberg’s GHQ-12 and GHQ-28 for diagnosis of mental disorders in workers. Med Pr 51(6):589–601 PubMed
Elliott T, Shewchuk R, Richards JS (2001) Family caregiver problem solving abilities and adjustment during the initial year of the caregiving role. J Couns Psychol 48:223–232 CrossRef
Mendl M (1999) Performing under pressure: stress and cognitive function. Appl Anim Behav Sci 65:221–244 CrossRef
- Comparison of perioperative stress in patients undergoing thyroid surgery with and without neuromonitoring—a pilot study
Andrzej J. Łachiński
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Neu im Fachgebiet Chirurgie
Mail Icon II