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04.05.2018 | Original Article | Ausgabe 1/2018

Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 1/2018

Expression of M2 macrophage markers YKL-39 and CCL18 in breast cancer is associated with the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy

Zeitschrift:
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology > Ausgabe 1/2018
Autoren:
Nikolai Litviakov, Matvey Tsyganov, Irina Larionova, Marina Ibragimova, Irina Deryusheva, Polina Kazantseva, Elena Slonimskaya, Irina Frolova, Eugeniy Choinzonov, Nadezhda Cherdyntseva, Julia Kzhyshkowska
Wichtige Hinweise
Nikolai Litviakov and Matvey Tsyganov had equal contribution to the study.

Abstract

Purpose

High activity of enzyme TOP2a in tumor cells is known to be associated with sensitivity to anthracycline chemotherapy, but 20% of such patients do not show clinical response. Tumor microenvironment, including tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), is an essential factor defining the efficiency of chemotherapy. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of M2 macrophage markers, YKL-39 and CCL18, in tumors of breast cancer patients received anthracycline-based NAC.

Methods

Patients were divided into two groups according to the level of doxorubicin sensitivity marker TOP2a: DOX-Sense and DOX-Res groups. Expression levels of TOR2a, CD68, YKL-39 and CCL18 genes were analyzed by qPCR, the amplification of TOR2a gene locus was assessed by the microarray assay. Clinical and pathological responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy were assessed.

Results

We found that the average level of TOP2a expression in patients of DOX-Sense group was almost 10 times higher than in patients of DOX-Res group, and the expression of CD68 was 3 times higher in the DOX-Sense group compared to DOX-Res group. We demonstrated that expression levels of M2-derived cytokines but not the amount of TAM is indicative for clinical and pathological chemotherapy efficacy in breast cancer patients. Out of 8 patients from DOX-Sense group who did not respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), 7 patients had M2+ macrophage phenotype (YKL-39+CCL18 or YKL-39CCL18+) and only one patient had M2− macrophage phenotype (YKL-39CCL18). In DOX-Res group, out of 14 patients who clinically responded to NAC 9 patients had M2− phenotype and only 5 patients had M2+ macrophage phenotype. Among pathological non-responders in DOX-Sense group, 19 (82%) patients had M2+ tumor phenotype and only 4 (18%) patients had M2− phenotype. In DOX-Res group, all 5 patients who pathologically responded to NAC had M2 phenotype (YKL-39CCL18). Unlike the clinical response to NAC, the differences in the frequency of M2+ and M2− phenotypes between pathologically responding and non-responding patients within DOX-Sense and DOX-Res groups were statistically significant.

Conclusions

Thus, we showed that in patients with breast cancer who received anthracycline-containing NAC the absence of clinical response is associated with the presence of M2+ macrophage phenotype (YKL-39-CCL18 + or YKL-39 + CCL18-) based on TOP2a overexpression data.

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