Skip to main content
Erschienen in: Journal of Gambling Studies 2/2021

01.10.2020 | Original Paper

Gambling Disorder and Childhood Trauma: A Complex Association

verfasst von: Natascha S. Horak, Gillian Eagle, Dan J. Stein, Christine Lochner

Erschienen in: Journal of Gambling Studies | Ausgabe 2/2021

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten

Abstract

Gambling disorder (GD) is classified as a behavioural addiction and has some phenotypic similarities with substance use disorders (SUDs). Childhood adversity and life stressors are associated with increased risk for SUDs in adulthood. However, there is limited research investigating the association between childhood trauma, stressors and behavioural addictions such as GD. In this case–control cross-sectional study, 31 adult patients with GD were compared to 31 matched healthy controls (HCs) in terms of exposure to early adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF). In addition, past 12-month stressful life event exposure was assessed using the Life Event Stress Scale (LESS) and investigated as a possible moderator of the relationship between childhood trauma and GD by means of a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Logistic regression analyses were used to test if childhood trauma (CTQ-SF) and its subtypes were significant predictors of a diagnosis of GD. Severity of childhood trauma in general, and on all five subtypes, was significantly higher in GD patients compared to HCs. Childhood trauma was a significant predictor of a diagnosis of GD, with physical neglect being the single trauma subtype to significantly increase odds of GD in adulthood. Stressful life events moderated the relationship between childhood trauma and GD, i.e. childhood trauma was significantly higher in GD patients compared to HCs when LESS was low. The findings support a link between childhood trauma and GD, with current stress as a moderating variable, and may be useful for future individualized therapeutic strategies.
Literatur
Zurück zum Zitat Alvarez, J., Pavao, J., Baumrind, N., & Kimerling, R. (2007). The relationship between child abuse and adult obesity among California women. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33(1), 28–33.PubMed Alvarez, J., Pavao, J., Baumrind, N., & Kimerling, R. (2007). The relationship between child abuse and adult obesity among California women. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33(1), 28–33.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat American Psychiatric Association. (2013a). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association. (2013a). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Zurück zum Zitat American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Zurück zum Zitat Barrett, E. L., Teesson, M., Chapman, C., Slade, T., Carragher, N., & Mills, K. (2015). Substance use and mental health consequences of childhood trauma: An epidemiological investigation. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 146, e217–e218. Barrett, E. L., Teesson, M., Chapman, C., Slade, T., Carragher, N., & Mills, K. (2015). Substance use and mental health consequences of childhood trauma: An epidemiological investigation. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 146, e217–e218.
Zurück zum Zitat Bergevin, T., Gupta, R., Derevensky, J., & Kaufman, F. (2006). Adolescent gambling: Understanding the role of stress and coping. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22(2), 195–208.PubMed Bergevin, T., Gupta, R., Derevensky, J., & Kaufman, F. (2006). Adolescent gambling: Understanding the role of stress and coping. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22(2), 195–208.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Bernstein, D. P., & Fink, L. (1998). Childhood trauma questionnaire: A retrospective self-report manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. Bernstein, D. P., & Fink, L. (1998). Childhood trauma questionnaire: A retrospective self-report manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Zurück zum Zitat Bernstein, D. P., Stein, J. A., Newcomb, M. D., Walker, E., Pogge, D., Ahluvalia, T., et al. (2003). Development and validation of a brief screening version of the childhood trauma questionnaire. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(2), 169–190. Bernstein, D. P., Stein, J. A., Newcomb, M. D., Walker, E., Pogge, D., Ahluvalia, T., et al. (2003). Development and validation of a brief screening version of the childhood trauma questionnaire. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(2), 169–190.
Zurück zum Zitat Berridge, K. C. (2007). The debate over dopamine’s role in reward: The case for incentive salience. Psychopharmacology, 191(3), 391–431. Berridge, K. C. (2007). The debate over dopamine’s role in reward: The case for incentive salience. Psychopharmacology, 191(3), 391–431.
Zurück zum Zitat Black, D. W., Shaw, M., McCormick, B., & Allen, J. (2013). Pathological gambling: Relationship to obesity, self-reported chronic medical conditions, poor lifestyle choices, and impaired quality of life. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 54(2), 97–104.PubMed Black, D. W., Shaw, M., McCormick, B., & Allen, J. (2013). Pathological gambling: Relationship to obesity, self-reported chronic medical conditions, poor lifestyle choices, and impaired quality of life. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 54(2), 97–104.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Black, D. W., Shaw, M. C., McCormick, B. A., & Allen, J. (2012). Marital status, childhood maltreatment, and family dysfunciton: A controlled study of pathological gambling. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 73(10), 1293–1297. Black, D. W., Shaw, M. C., McCormick, B. A., & Allen, J. (2012). Marital status, childhood maltreatment, and family dysfunciton: A controlled study of pathological gambling. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 73(10), 1293–1297.
Zurück zum Zitat Brydges, N. M., Holmes, M. C., Harris, A. P., Cardinal, R. N., & Hall, J. (2015). Early life stress produces compulsive-like, but not impulsive, behavior in females. Behavioral Neuroscience, 129(3), 300–308.PubMedPubMedCentral Brydges, N. M., Holmes, M. C., Harris, A. P., Cardinal, R. N., & Hall, J. (2015). Early life stress produces compulsive-like, but not impulsive, behavior in females. Behavioral Neuroscience, 129(3), 300–308.PubMedPubMedCentral
Zurück zum Zitat Dalbudak, E., Evren, C., Aldemir, S., & Evren, B. (2014). The severity of internet addiction risk and its relationship with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. Psychiatry Research, 219(3), 577–582.PubMed Dalbudak, E., Evren, C., Aldemir, S., & Evren, B. (2014). The severity of internet addiction risk and its relationship with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. Psychiatry Research, 219(3), 577–582.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Dudeck, M., Vasic, N., Otte, S., Streb, J., Wingenfeld, K., Grabe, H. J., et al. (2015). Factorial validity of the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ–SF) in German psychiatric patients, inmates, and university students. Psychological Reports, 116(3), 685–703.PubMed Dudeck, M., Vasic, N., Otte, S., Streb, J., Wingenfeld, K., Grabe, H. J., et al. (2015). Factorial validity of the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ–SF) in German psychiatric patients, inmates, and university students. Psychological Reports, 116(3), 685–703.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Edalati, H., & Krank, M. (2016). Childhood maltreatment and development of substance use disorders: A review and model of cognitive pathways. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 17(5), 454–467. Edalati, H., & Krank, M. (2016). Childhood maltreatment and development of substance use disorders: A review and model of cognitive pathways. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 17(5), 454–467.
Zurück zum Zitat Elman, I., Tschibelu, E., & Borsook, D. (2010). Gender differences in psychosocial stress and in its relationship to gambling urges in individuals with pathological gambling. The American Journal on Addictions, 19, 332–339.PubMed Elman, I., Tschibelu, E., & Borsook, D. (2010). Gender differences in psychosocial stress and in its relationship to gambling urges in individuals with pathological gambling. The American Journal on Addictions, 19, 332–339.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Felsher, J. R., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2010). Young adults with gambling problems: The impact of childhood maltreatment. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 8(4), 545–556. Felsher, J. R., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2010). Young adults with gambling problems: The impact of childhood maltreatment. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 8(4), 545–556.
Zurück zum Zitat Grant, J. E., Steinberg, M. A., Kim, S. W., Rounsaville, B. J., & Potenza, M. N. (2004). Preliminary validity and reliability testing of a structured clinical interview for pathological gambling. Psychiatry Research, 128(1), 79–88.PubMed Grant, J. E., Steinberg, M. A., Kim, S. W., Rounsaville, B. J., & Potenza, M. N. (2004). Preliminary validity and reliability testing of a structured clinical interview for pathological gambling. Psychiatry Research, 128(1), 79–88.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Grassi-Oliveira, R., Cogo-Moreira, H., Salum, G. A., Brietzke, E., Viola, T. W., Manfro, G. G., et al. (2014). Childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) in Brazilian samples of different age groups: Findings from confirmatory factor analysis. PLoS ONE, 9(1), e87118.PubMedPubMedCentral Grassi-Oliveira, R., Cogo-Moreira, H., Salum, G. A., Brietzke, E., Viola, T. W., Manfro, G. G., et al. (2014). Childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) in Brazilian samples of different age groups: Findings from confirmatory factor analysis. PLoS ONE, 9(1), e87118.PubMedPubMedCentral
Zurück zum Zitat Hammen, C., Henry, R., & Daley, S. E. (2000). Depression and sensitization to stressors among young women as a function of childhood adversity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(5), 782–787.PubMed Hammen, C., Henry, R., & Daley, S. E. (2000). Depression and sensitization to stressors among young women as a function of childhood adversity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(5), 782–787.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Harmon, D. K., Masuda, M., & Holmes, T. H. (1970). The social readjustment rating scale: A cross-cultural study of Western Europeans and Americans. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 14(4), 391–400.PubMed Harmon, D. K., Masuda, M., & Holmes, T. H. (1970). The social readjustment rating scale: A cross-cultural study of Western Europeans and Americans. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 14(4), 391–400.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Hodgins, D. C., Schopflocher, D. P., El-Guebaly, N., Casey, D. M., Smith, G. J., Williams, R. J., et al. (2010). The association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems in a community sample of adult men and women. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors, 24(3), 548–554. Hodgins, D. C., Schopflocher, D. P., El-Guebaly, N., Casey, D. M., Smith, G. J., Williams, R. J., et al. (2010). The association between childhood maltreatment and gambling problems in a community sample of adult men and women. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors, 24(3), 548–554.
Zurück zum Zitat Hodgins, D. C., Schopflocher, D. P., Martin, C. R., El-Guebaly, N., Casey, D. M., Currie, S. R., et al. (2012). Disordered gambling among higher-frequency gamblers: Who is at risk? Psychological Medicine, 42(11), 2433–2444.PubMed Hodgins, D. C., Schopflocher, D. P., Martin, C. R., El-Guebaly, N., Casey, D. M., Currie, S. R., et al. (2012). Disordered gambling among higher-frequency gamblers: Who is at risk? Psychological Medicine, 42(11), 2433–2444.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11(2), 213–218.PubMed Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11(2), 213–218.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Hughes, K., Lowey, H., Quigg, Z., & Bellis, M. A. (2016). Relationships between adverse childhood experiences and adult mental well-being: Results from an English national household survey. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 222.PubMedPubMedCentral Hughes, K., Lowey, H., Quigg, Z., & Bellis, M. A. (2016). Relationships between adverse childhood experiences and adult mental well-being: Results from an English national household survey. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 222.PubMedPubMedCentral
Zurück zum Zitat Jewkes, R. K., Dunkle, K., Nduna, M., Jama, P. N., & Puren, A. (2010). Associations between childhood adversity and depression, substance abuse and HIV and HSV2 incident infections in rural South African youth. Child Abuse and Neglect, 34(11), 833–841.PubMed Jewkes, R. K., Dunkle, K., Nduna, M., Jama, P. N., & Puren, A. (2010). Associations between childhood adversity and depression, substance abuse and HIV and HSV2 incident infections in rural South African youth. Child Abuse and Neglect, 34(11), 833–841.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Komaroff, A. L., Masuda, M., & Holmes, T. H. (1968). The social readjustment rating scale: A comparative study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 12(2), 121–128.PubMed Komaroff, A. L., Masuda, M., & Holmes, T. H. (1968). The social readjustment rating scale: A comparative study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 12(2), 121–128.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Lane, W., Sacco, P., Downton, K., Ludeman, E., Levy, L., & Tracy, J. K. (2016). Child maltreatment and problem gambling: A systematic review. Child Abuse and Neglect, 58, 24–38.PubMed Lane, W., Sacco, P., Downton, K., Ludeman, E., Levy, L., & Tracy, J. K. (2016). Child maltreatment and problem gambling: A systematic review. Child Abuse and Neglect, 58, 24–38.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat McCormick, J., Delfabbro, P., & Denson, L. A. (2012). Psychological vulnerability and problem gambling: An application of Durand Jacobs’ general theory of addictions to electronic gaming machine playing in Australia. Journal of Gambling Studies, 28(4), 665–690.PubMed McCormick, J., Delfabbro, P., & Denson, L. A. (2012). Psychological vulnerability and problem gambling: An application of Durand Jacobs’ general theory of addictions to electronic gaming machine playing in Australia. Journal of Gambling Studies, 28(4), 665–690.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat McLaughlin, K. A., Conron, K. J., Koenen, K. C., & Gilman, S. E. (2010). Childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and risk of past-year psychiatric disorder: A test of the stress sensitization hypothesis in a population-based sample of adults. Psychological Medicine, 40(10), 1647–1658.PubMed McLaughlin, K. A., Conron, K. J., Koenen, K. C., & Gilman, S. E. (2010). Childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and risk of past-year psychiatric disorder: A test of the stress sensitization hypothesis in a population-based sample of adults. Psychological Medicine, 40(10), 1647–1658.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat McLaughlin, K. A., & Sheridan, M. A. (2016). Beyond cumulative risk: A dimensional approach to childhood adversity. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 25(4), 239–245.PubMedPubMedCentral McLaughlin, K. A., & Sheridan, M. A. (2016). Beyond cumulative risk: A dimensional approach to childhood adversity. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 25(4), 239–245.PubMedPubMedCentral
Zurück zum Zitat McPherson, S., Clayton, S., Wood, H., Hiskey, S., & Andrews, L. (2013). The role of childhood experiences in the development of sexual compulsivity. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 20(4), 259–278. McPherson, S., Clayton, S., Wood, H., Hiskey, S., & Andrews, L. (2013). The role of childhood experiences in the development of sexual compulsivity. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 20(4), 259–278.
Zurück zum Zitat Nixon, G., Evans, K., Grant Kalischuk, R., Solowoniuk, J., McCallum, K., & Hagen, B. (2012). Female gambling, trauma, and the not good enough self: An interpretative phenomenological analysis. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 11(2), 214–231. Nixon, G., Evans, K., Grant Kalischuk, R., Solowoniuk, J., McCallum, K., & Hagen, B. (2012). Female gambling, trauma, and the not good enough self: An interpretative phenomenological analysis. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 11(2), 214–231.
Zurück zum Zitat Pallanti, S., DeCaria, C. M., Grant, J. E., Urpe, M., & Hollander, E. (2005). Reliability and validity of the pathological gambling adaptation of the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (PG-YBOCS). Journal of Gambling Studies / Co-Sponsored by the National Council on Problem Gambling and Institute for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming, 21(4), 431–443. Pallanti, S., DeCaria, C. M., Grant, J. E., Urpe, M., & Hollander, E. (2005). Reliability and validity of the pathological gambling adaptation of the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (PG-YBOCS). Journal of Gambling Studies / Co-Sponsored by the National Council on Problem Gambling and Institute for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming, 21(4), 431–443.
Zurück zum Zitat Pessiglione, M., Schmidt, L., Draganski, B., Kalisch, R., Lau, H., Dolan, R. J., et al. (2007). How the brain translates money into force: A neuroimaging study of subliminal motivation. Science, 316(5826), 904–906.PubMedPubMedCentral Pessiglione, M., Schmidt, L., Draganski, B., Kalisch, R., Lau, H., Dolan, R. J., et al. (2007). How the brain translates money into force: A neuroimaging study of subliminal motivation. Science, 316(5826), 904–906.PubMedPubMedCentral
Zurück zum Zitat Petry, N. M. (2016). Behavioral addictions: DSM-5 and beyond. New York: Oxford University Press. Petry, N. M. (2016). Behavioral addictions: DSM-5 and beyond. New York: Oxford University Press.
Zurück zum Zitat Petry, N. M., & Steinberg, K. L. (2005). Childhood maltreatment in male and female treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19(2), 226–229.PubMed Petry, N. M., & Steinberg, K. L. (2005). Childhood maltreatment in male and female treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19(2), 226–229.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Rahe, R. H., Mahan, J. L., Jr., & Arthur, R. J. (1970). Prediction of near-future health change from subjects’ preceding life changes. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 14(4), 401–406.PubMed Rahe, R. H., Mahan, J. L., Jr., & Arthur, R. J. (1970). Prediction of near-future health change from subjects’ preceding life changes. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 14(4), 401–406.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Roberts, A., Sharman, S., Coid, J., Murphy, R., Bowden-Jones, H., Cowlishaw, S., et al. (2017). Gambling and negative life events in a nationally representative sample of UK men. Addictive Behaviors, 75, 95–102.PubMed Roberts, A., Sharman, S., Coid, J., Murphy, R., Bowden-Jones, H., Cowlishaw, S., et al. (2017). Gambling and negative life events in a nationally representative sample of UK men. Addictive Behaviors, 75, 95–102.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Scherrer, J. F., Xian, H., Kapp, J. M. K., Waterman, B., Shah, K. R., Volberg, R., et al. (2007). Association between exposure to childhood and lifetime traumatic events and lifetime pathological gambling in a twin cohort. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195(1), 72–78.PubMed Scherrer, J. F., Xian, H., Kapp, J. M. K., Waterman, B., Shah, K. R., Volberg, R., et al. (2007). Association between exposure to childhood and lifetime traumatic events and lifetime pathological gambling in a twin cohort. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195(1), 72–78.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Sheehan, D., Lecrubier, Y., Sheehan, H., Amorim, P., Janavs, J., Weiller, E., et al. (1998). The mini-international neuropsychiatric interview (M.I.N.I.): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59, 22–33. Sheehan, D., Lecrubier, Y., Sheehan, H., Amorim, P., Janavs, J., Weiller, E., et al. (1998). The mini-international neuropsychiatric interview (M.I.N.I.): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59, 22–33.
Zurück zum Zitat Sinclair, H., Pasche, S., Pretorius, A., & Stein, D. J. (2015). Clinical profile and psychiatric comorbidity of treatment-seeking individuals with pathological gambling in South-Africa. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31, 1227–1243.PubMed Sinclair, H., Pasche, S., Pretorius, A., & Stein, D. J. (2015). Clinical profile and psychiatric comorbidity of treatment-seeking individuals with pathological gambling in South-Africa. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31, 1227–1243.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Spinhoven, P., Penninx, B. W., Hickendorff, M., van Hemert, A. M., Bernstein, D. P., & Elzinga, B. M. (2014). Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: Factor structure, measurement invariance, and validity across emotional disorders. Psychological Assessment, 26(3), 717–729.PubMed Spinhoven, P., Penninx, B. W., Hickendorff, M., van Hemert, A. M., Bernstein, D. P., & Elzinga, B. M. (2014). Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: Factor structure, measurement invariance, and validity across emotional disorders. Psychological Assessment, 26(3), 717–729.PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Stein, D. J., Billieux, J., Bowden-Jones, H., Grant, J. E., Fineberg, N., Higuchi, S., et al. (2018). Balancing validity, utility and public health considerations in disorders due to addictive behaviours. World Psychiatry, 17(3), 363–364.PubMedPubMedCentral Stein, D. J., Billieux, J., Bowden-Jones, H., Grant, J. E., Fineberg, N., Higuchi, S., et al. (2018). Balancing validity, utility and public health considerations in disorders due to addictive behaviours. World Psychiatry, 17(3), 363–364.PubMedPubMedCentral
Metadaten
Titel
Gambling Disorder and Childhood Trauma: A Complex Association
verfasst von
Natascha S. Horak
Gillian Eagle
Dan J. Stein
Christine Lochner
Publikationsdatum
01.10.2020
Verlag
Springer US
Erschienen in
Journal of Gambling Studies / Ausgabe 2/2021
Elektronische ISSN: 1573-3602
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-020-09983-w

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 2/2021

Journal of Gambling Studies 2/2021 Zur Ausgabe