Skip to main content
Erschienen in: Current Psychiatry Reports 12/2018

01.12.2018 | Sex and Gender Issues in Behavioral Health (CN Epperson and L Hantsoo, Section Editors)

Gender-Affirming Hormone Use in Transgender Individuals: Impact on Behavioral Health and Cognition

verfasst von: Hillary B. Nguyen, Alexis M. Chavez, Emily Lipner, Liisa Hantsoo, Sara L. Kornfield, Robert D. Davies, C. Neill Epperson

Erschienen in: Current Psychiatry Reports | Ausgabe 12/2018

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten

Abstract

Purpose of Review

With increasing numbers of transgender and gender non-binary individuals presenting for care, knowing how to elucidate the mental health and cognitive outcomes of gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) is necessary. This article reviews the present literature covering GAHT effects on mood, behavioral health, and cognition in these individuals and offers research priorities to address knowledge gaps.

Recent Findings

Although there are some conflicting data, GAHT overwhelmingly seems to have positive psychological effects in both adolescents and adults. Research tends to support that GAHT reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression, lowers perceived and social distress, and improves quality of life and self-esteem in both male-to-female and female-to-male transgender individuals.

Summary

Clinically, prescribing GAHT can help with gender dysphoria-related mental distress. Thus, timely hormonal intervention represents a crucial tool for improving behavioral wellness in transgender individuals, though effects on cognitive processes fundamental for daily living are unknown. Future research should prioritize better understanding of how GAHT may affect executive functioning.
Literatur
1.
Zurück zum Zitat •• Nguyen HB, Loughead J, Lipner E, Hantsoo L, Kornfield SL, Epperson CN. What has sex got to do with it? The role of hormones in the transgender brain. Neuropsychopharmacology [Internet]. 2018; Available from: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-018-0140-7. This article is one of the latest, most comprehensive reviews on the brain, behavioral, and cognitive effects of gender-affirming hormone therapy in transgender individuals. CrossRefPubMed •• Nguyen HB, Loughead J, Lipner E, Hantsoo L, Kornfield SL, Epperson CN. What has sex got to do with it? The role of hormones in the transgender brain. Neuropsychopharmacology [Internet]. 2018; Available from: https://​doi.​org/​10.​1038/​s41386-018-0140-7. This article is one of the latest, most comprehensive reviews on the brain, behavioral, and cognitive effects of gender-affirming hormone therapy in transgender individuals. CrossRefPubMed
2.
Zurück zum Zitat Bale TL, Epperson CN. Sex as a biological variable: who, what, when, why, and how. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017;42(2):386–96.CrossRefPubMed Bale TL, Epperson CN. Sex as a biological variable: who, what, when, why, and how. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017;42(2):386–96.CrossRefPubMed
3.
Zurück zum Zitat Spitzer RL, Md KK, Williams JBW. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Third Edition. Am Psychiatr Assoc. 1980. Spitzer RL, Md KK, Williams JBW. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Third Edition. Am Psychiatr Assoc. 1980.
6.
Zurück zum Zitat Flores AR, Herman JL, Gates GJ, Brown TNT. How many adults identify as transgender in the United States?. The Williams Institute; 2016. Flores AR, Herman JL, Gates GJ, Brown TNT. How many adults identify as transgender in the United States?. The Williams Institute; 2016.
7.
Zurück zum Zitat Meerwijk EL, Sevelius JM. Transgender population size in the United States: a meta-regression of population-based probability samples. Am J Public Health. 2017;107(2):e1–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Meerwijk EL, Sevelius JM. Transgender population size in the United States: a meta-regression of population-based probability samples. Am J Public Health. 2017;107(2):e1–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
8.
Zurück zum Zitat Mueller SC, De Cuypere G, T’Sjoen G. Transgender research in the 21st century: a selective critical review from a neurocognitive perspective. Am J Psychiatry. 2017;174(12):1155–62.CrossRefPubMed Mueller SC, De Cuypere G, T’Sjoen G. Transgender research in the 21st century: a selective critical review from a neurocognitive perspective. Am J Psychiatry. 2017;174(12):1155–62.CrossRefPubMed
9.
Zurück zum Zitat Arnold AP, Breedlove SM. Organizational and activational effects of sex steroids on brain and behavior: a reanalysis. Horm Behav. 1985;19(4):469–98.CrossRefPubMed Arnold AP, Breedlove SM. Organizational and activational effects of sex steroids on brain and behavior: a reanalysis. Horm Behav. 1985;19(4):469–98.CrossRefPubMed
10.
Zurück zum Zitat McCarthy MM, Arnold AP, Ball GF, Blaustein JD, De Vries GJ. Sex differences in the brain: the not so inconvenient truth. J Neurosci. 2012;32(7):2241–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral McCarthy MM, Arnold AP, Ball GF, Blaustein JD, De Vries GJ. Sex differences in the brain: the not so inconvenient truth. J Neurosci. 2012;32(7):2241–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
11.
Zurück zum Zitat Bakker J, Baum MJ. Role for estradiol in female-typical brain and behavioral sexual differentiation. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2008;29(1):1–16.CrossRefPubMed Bakker J, Baum MJ. Role for estradiol in female-typical brain and behavioral sexual differentiation. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2008;29(1):1–16.CrossRefPubMed
12.
Zurück zum Zitat •• Joel D, Berman Z, Tavor I, Wexler N, Gaber O, Stein Y, et al. Sex beyond the genitalia: the human brain mosaic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112(50):15468–73 This article proposes the idea of the mosaic human brain, which cannot be distinctly categorized into either a female brain or a male brain. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral •• Joel D, Berman Z, Tavor I, Wexler N, Gaber O, Stein Y, et al. Sex beyond the genitalia: the human brain mosaic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112(50):15468–73 This article proposes the idea of the mosaic human brain, which cannot be distinctly categorized into either a female brain or a male brain. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
13.
Zurück zum Zitat Satterthwaite TD, Vandekar S, Wolf DH, Ruparel K, Roalf DR, Jackson C, et al. Sex differences in the effect of puberty on hippocampal morphology. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014;53(3):341–350.e1.CrossRefPubMed Satterthwaite TD, Vandekar S, Wolf DH, Ruparel K, Roalf DR, Jackson C, et al. Sex differences in the effect of puberty on hippocampal morphology. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014;53(3):341–350.e1.CrossRefPubMed
14.
Zurück zum Zitat Shanmugan S, Epperson CN. Estrogen and the prefrontal cortex: towards a new understanding of estrogen’s effects on executive functions in the menopause transition. Hum Brain Mapp. 2014;35(3):847–65.CrossRefPubMed Shanmugan S, Epperson CN. Estrogen and the prefrontal cortex: towards a new understanding of estrogen’s effects on executive functions in the menopause transition. Hum Brain Mapp. 2014;35(3):847–65.CrossRefPubMed
15.
Zurück zum Zitat Grant JM, Mottet LA, Tanis J, Herman JL, Harrison J, Keisling M. National transgender discrimination survey report on health and health care. Natl Cent Transgender Equal Natl Gay Lesbian Task Force. 2010;1:1–23. Grant JM, Mottet LA, Tanis J, Herman JL, Harrison J, Keisling M. National transgender discrimination survey report on health and health care. Natl Cent Transgender Equal Natl Gay Lesbian Task Force. 2010;1:1–23.
16.
Zurück zum Zitat Gouchie C, Kimura D. The relationship between testosterone levels and cognitive ability patterns. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1991;16(4):323–34.CrossRefPubMed Gouchie C, Kimura D. The relationship between testosterone levels and cognitive ability patterns. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1991;16(4):323–34.CrossRefPubMed
17.
Zurück zum Zitat Miller DI, Halpern DF. The new science of cognitive sex differences. Trends Cogn Sci. 2014;18(1):37–45.CrossRefPubMed Miller DI, Halpern DF. The new science of cognitive sex differences. Trends Cogn Sci. 2014;18(1):37–45.CrossRefPubMed
18.
Zurück zum Zitat Luders E, Sánchez FJ, Tosun D, Shattuck DW, Gaser C, Vilain E, et al. Increased cortical thickness in male-to-female transsexualism. J Behav Brain Sci. 2012;2(3):357–62.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Luders E, Sánchez FJ, Tosun D, Shattuck DW, Gaser C, Vilain E, et al. Increased cortical thickness in male-to-female transsexualism. J Behav Brain Sci. 2012;2(3):357–62.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
19.
Zurück zum Zitat • Zubiaurre-Elorza L, Junque C, Gómez-Gil E, Guillamon A. Effects of cross-sex hormone treatment on cortical thickness in transsexual individuals. J Sex Med. 2014;11(5):1248–61 This article is one of the few longitudinal studies assessing the effects of testosterone on the brain structure of FTM transgender individuals. CrossRefPubMed • Zubiaurre-Elorza L, Junque C, Gómez-Gil E, Guillamon A. Effects of cross-sex hormone treatment on cortical thickness in transsexual individuals. J Sex Med. 2014;11(5):1248–61 This article is one of the few longitudinal studies assessing the effects of testosterone on the brain structure of FTM transgender individuals. CrossRefPubMed
20.
Zurück zum Zitat Simon L, Kozák LR, Simon V, Czobor P, Unoka Z, Szabó Á, et al. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e83947.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Simon L, Kozák LR, Simon V, Czobor P, Unoka Z, Szabó Á, et al. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e83947.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
21.
Zurück zum Zitat Rametti G, Carrillo B, Gómez-Gil E, Junque C, Zubiaurre-Elorza L, Segovia S, et al. Effects of androgenization on the white matter microstructure of female-to-male transsexuals. A diffusion tensor imaging study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;37(8):1261–9.CrossRefPubMed Rametti G, Carrillo B, Gómez-Gil E, Junque C, Zubiaurre-Elorza L, Segovia S, et al. Effects of androgenization on the white matter microstructure of female-to-male transsexuals. A diffusion tensor imaging study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;37(8):1261–9.CrossRefPubMed
22.
Zurück zum Zitat Kranz GS, Hahn A, Kaufmann U, Küblböck M, Hummer A, Ganger S, et al. White matter microstructure in transsexuals and controls investigated by diffusion tensor imaging. J Neurosci. 2014;34(46):15466–75.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Kranz GS, Hahn A, Kaufmann U, Küblböck M, Hummer A, Ganger S, et al. White matter microstructure in transsexuals and controls investigated by diffusion tensor imaging. J Neurosci. 2014;34(46):15466–75.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
23.
Zurück zum Zitat • Hahn A, Kranz GS, Küblböck M, Kaufmann U, Ganger S, Hummer A, et al. Structural connectivity networks of transgender people. Cereb Cortex. 2015;25(10):3527–34 This report is the first cross-sectional study reporting on the structural connectivity networks of transgender patients before onset of gender-affirming hormone therapy. CrossRefPubMed • Hahn A, Kranz GS, Küblböck M, Kaufmann U, Ganger S, Hummer A, et al. Structural connectivity networks of transgender people. Cereb Cortex. 2015;25(10):3527–34 This report is the first cross-sectional study reporting on the structural connectivity networks of transgender patients before onset of gender-affirming hormone therapy. CrossRefPubMed
24.
Zurück zum Zitat Yokota Y, Kawamura Y, Kameya Y. Callosal shapes at the midsagittal plane: MRI differences of normal males, normal females, and GID. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2005;3:3055–8.PubMed Yokota Y, Kawamura Y, Kameya Y. Callosal shapes at the midsagittal plane: MRI differences of normal males, normal females, and GID. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2005;3:3055–8.PubMed
25.
Zurück zum Zitat Lin C-S, Ku H-L, Chao H-T, Tu P-C, Li C-T, Cheng C-M, et al. Neural network of body representation differs between transsexuals and cissexuals. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e85914.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Lin C-S, Ku H-L, Chao H-T, Tu P-C, Li C-T, Cheng C-M, et al. Neural network of body representation differs between transsexuals and cissexuals. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e85914.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
26.
Zurück zum Zitat Cohen-Kettenis PT, van Goozen SH, Doorn CD, Gooren LJ. Cognitive ability and cerebral lateralisation in transsexuals. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1998;23(6):631–41.CrossRefPubMed Cohen-Kettenis PT, van Goozen SH, Doorn CD, Gooren LJ. Cognitive ability and cerebral lateralisation in transsexuals. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1998;23(6):631–41.CrossRefPubMed
27.
Zurück zum Zitat Bradley SJ, Zucker KJ. Gender identity disorder and psychosexual problems in children and adolescents. Can J Psychiatr Rev Can Psychiatr. 1990;35(6):477–86.CrossRef Bradley SJ, Zucker KJ. Gender identity disorder and psychosexual problems in children and adolescents. Can J Psychiatr Rev Can Psychiatr. 1990;35(6):477–86.CrossRef
28.
Zurück zum Zitat Soleman RS, Schagen SEE, Veltman DJ, Kreukels BPC, Cohen-Kettenis PT, Lambalk CB, et al. Sex differences in verbal fluency during adolescence: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in gender dysphoric and control boys and girls. J Sex Med. 2013;10(8):1969–77.CrossRefPubMed Soleman RS, Schagen SEE, Veltman DJ, Kreukels BPC, Cohen-Kettenis PT, Lambalk CB, et al. Sex differences in verbal fluency during adolescence: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in gender dysphoric and control boys and girls. J Sex Med. 2013;10(8):1969–77.CrossRefPubMed
29.
Zurück zum Zitat Hunt DD, Carr JE, Hampson JL. Cognitive correlates of biologic sex and gender identity in transsexualism. Arch Sex Behav. 1981;10(1):65–77.CrossRefPubMed Hunt DD, Carr JE, Hampson JL. Cognitive correlates of biologic sex and gender identity in transsexualism. Arch Sex Behav. 1981;10(1):65–77.CrossRefPubMed
30.
Zurück zum Zitat Bäckström T, Bixo M, Johansson M, Nyberg S, Ossewaarde L, Ragagnin G, et al. Allopregnanolone and mood disorders. Prog Neurobiol. 2014;113:88–94.CrossRefPubMed Bäckström T, Bixo M, Johansson M, Nyberg S, Ossewaarde L, Ragagnin G, et al. Allopregnanolone and mood disorders. Prog Neurobiol. 2014;113:88–94.CrossRefPubMed
31.
Zurück zum Zitat Shanmugan S, Loughead J, Nanga RPR, Elliott M, Hariharan H, Appleby D, et al. Lisdexamfetamine effects on executive activation and neurochemistry in menopausal women with executive function difficulties. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017;42(2):437–45.CrossRefPubMed Shanmugan S, Loughead J, Nanga RPR, Elliott M, Hariharan H, Appleby D, et al. Lisdexamfetamine effects on executive activation and neurochemistry in menopausal women with executive function difficulties. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017;42(2):437–45.CrossRefPubMed
32.
Zurück zum Zitat Epperson CN, Wisner KL, Yamamoto B. Gonadal steroids in the treatment of mood disorders. Psychosom Med. 1999;61(5):676–97.CrossRefPubMed Epperson CN, Wisner KL, Yamamoto B. Gonadal steroids in the treatment of mood disorders. Psychosom Med. 1999;61(5):676–97.CrossRefPubMed
33.
Zurück zum Zitat • Colizzi M, Costa R, Todarello O. Transsexual patients’ psychiatric comorbidity and positive effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on mental health: results from a longitudinal study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014;39:65–73 This publication is a recent and comprehensive longitudinal study of both MTF and FTM transgender populations, reporting the positive effects after one year of gender-affirming hormone therapy on behavioral health parameters such as depression and anxiety. CrossRefPubMed • Colizzi M, Costa R, Todarello O. Transsexual patients’ psychiatric comorbidity and positive effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on mental health: results from a longitudinal study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014;39:65–73 This publication is a recent and comprehensive longitudinal study of both MTF and FTM transgender populations, reporting the positive effects after one year of gender-affirming hormone therapy on behavioral health parameters such as depression and anxiety. CrossRefPubMed
34.
Zurück zum Zitat Heylens G, Verroken C, De Cock S, T’Sjoen G, De Cuypere G. Effects of different steps in gender reassignment therapy on psychopathology: a prospective study of persons with a gender identity disorder. J Sex Med. 2014;11(1):119–26.CrossRefPubMed Heylens G, Verroken C, De Cock S, T’Sjoen G, De Cuypere G. Effects of different steps in gender reassignment therapy on psychopathology: a prospective study of persons with a gender identity disorder. J Sex Med. 2014;11(1):119–26.CrossRefPubMed
35.
Zurück zum Zitat • Fisher AD, Castellini G, Ristori J, Casale H, Cassioli E, Sensi C, et al. Cross-sex hormone treatment and psychobiological changes in transsexual persons: two-year follow-up data. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101(11):4260–9 This study is one of few that focuses on how body changes, induced by gender-affirming hormone therapy, impact psychobiological well-being in transgender and gender dysphoric people. CrossRefPubMed • Fisher AD, Castellini G, Ristori J, Casale H, Cassioli E, Sensi C, et al. Cross-sex hormone treatment and psychobiological changes in transsexual persons: two-year follow-up data. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101(11):4260–9 This study is one of few that focuses on how body changes, induced by gender-affirming hormone therapy, impact psychobiological well-being in transgender and gender dysphoric people. CrossRefPubMed
36.
Zurück zum Zitat • Colizzi M, Costa R, Pace V, Todarello O. Hormonal treatment reduces psychobiological distress in gender identity disorder, independently of the attachment style. J Sex Med. 2013;10(12):3049–58 This longitudinal study assesses stress in a fairly large number of transgender patients. CrossRefPubMed • Colizzi M, Costa R, Pace V, Todarello O. Hormonal treatment reduces psychobiological distress in gender identity disorder, independently of the attachment style. J Sex Med. 2013;10(12):3049–58 This longitudinal study assesses stress in a fairly large number of transgender patients. CrossRefPubMed
37.
Zurück zum Zitat Keo-Meier CL, Herman LI, Reisner SL, Pardo ST, Sharp C, Babcock JC. Testosterone treatment and MMPI-2 improvement in transgender men: a prospective controlled study. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2015;83(1):143–56.CrossRefPubMed Keo-Meier CL, Herman LI, Reisner SL, Pardo ST, Sharp C, Babcock JC. Testosterone treatment and MMPI-2 improvement in transgender men: a prospective controlled study. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2015;83(1):143–56.CrossRefPubMed
38.
Zurück zum Zitat Oda H, Kinoshita T. Efficacy of hormonal and mental treatments with MMPI in FtM individuals: cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. BMC Psychiatry. 2017;17(1):256.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Oda H, Kinoshita T. Efficacy of hormonal and mental treatments with MMPI in FtM individuals: cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. BMC Psychiatry. 2017;17(1):256.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
39.
Zurück zum Zitat Turan Ş, Aksoy Poyraz C, Usta Sağlam NG, Demirel ÖF, Haliloğlu Ö, Kadıoğlu P, et al. Alterations in body uneasiness, eating attitudes, and psychopathology before and after cross-sex hormonal treatment in patients with female-to-male gender dysphoria. Arch Sex Behav. 2018. Turan Ş, Aksoy Poyraz C, Usta Sağlam NG, Demirel ÖF, Haliloğlu Ö, Kadıoğlu P, et al. Alterations in body uneasiness, eating attitudes, and psychopathology before and after cross-sex hormonal treatment in patients with female-to-male gender dysphoria. Arch Sex Behav. 2018.
40.
Zurück zum Zitat Motta G, Crespi C, Mineccia V, Brustio PR, Manieri C, Lanfranco F. Does testosterone treatment increase anger expression in a population of transgender men? J Sex Med. 2018;15(1):94–101.CrossRefPubMed Motta G, Crespi C, Mineccia V, Brustio PR, Manieri C, Lanfranco F. Does testosterone treatment increase anger expression in a population of transgender men? J Sex Med. 2018;15(1):94–101.CrossRefPubMed
41.
Zurück zum Zitat • Defreyne J, T’Sjoen G, Bouman WP, Brewin N, Arcelus J. Prospective evaluation of self-reported aggression in transgender persons. J Sex Med. 2018;15(5):768–76 This report is the first prospective study assessing the effects of long-term administration of testosterone in transgender men. CrossRefPubMed • Defreyne J, T’Sjoen G, Bouman WP, Brewin N, Arcelus J. Prospective evaluation of self-reported aggression in transgender persons. J Sex Med. 2018;15(5):768–76 This report is the first prospective study assessing the effects of long-term administration of testosterone in transgender men. CrossRefPubMed
42.
Zurück zum Zitat Manieri C, Castellano E, Crespi C, Di Bisceglie C, Dell’Aquila C, Gualerzi A, et al. Medical treatment of subjects with gender identity disorder: the experience in an Italian public health center. Int J Transgenderism. 2014;15:53–65.CrossRef Manieri C, Castellano E, Crespi C, Di Bisceglie C, Dell’Aquila C, Gualerzi A, et al. Medical treatment of subjects with gender identity disorder: the experience in an Italian public health center. Int J Transgenderism. 2014;15:53–65.CrossRef
43.
Zurück zum Zitat Corda E, Bandecchi C, Deiana V, Pintore S, Pinna F, Pusceddu R, et al. Body image and gender role perceived in gender dysphoria: cross-sex hormone therapy effects. Eur Psychiatry. 2016;33:S589.CrossRef Corda E, Bandecchi C, Deiana V, Pintore S, Pinna F, Pusceddu R, et al. Body image and gender role perceived in gender dysphoria: cross-sex hormone therapy effects. Eur Psychiatry. 2016;33:S589.CrossRef
44.
Zurück zum Zitat Gorin-Lazard A, Baumstarck K, Boyer L, Maquigneau A, Penochet J-C, Pringuey D, et al. Hormonal therapy is associated with better self-esteem, mood, and quality of life in transsexuals. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2013;201(11):996–1000.CrossRefPubMed Gorin-Lazard A, Baumstarck K, Boyer L, Maquigneau A, Penochet J-C, Pringuey D, et al. Hormonal therapy is associated with better self-esteem, mood, and quality of life in transsexuals. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2013;201(11):996–1000.CrossRefPubMed
45.
Zurück zum Zitat Davis SA, Meier SC. Effects of testosterone treatment and chest reconstruction surgery on mental health and sexuality in female-to-male transgender people. Int J Sex Health. 2014;26(2):113–28.CrossRef Davis SA, Meier SC. Effects of testosterone treatment and chest reconstruction surgery on mental health and sexuality in female-to-male transgender people. Int J Sex Health. 2014;26(2):113–28.CrossRef
46.
Zurück zum Zitat • Bouman WP, Claes L, Marshall E, Pinner GT, Longworth J, Maddox V, et al. Sociodemographic variables, clinical features, and the role of preassessment cross-sex hormones in older trans people. J Sex Med. 2016;13(4):711–9 This study is one of the rare investigations into how gender-affirming hormone therapy affects the behavioral health of older transgender people. CrossRefPubMed • Bouman WP, Claes L, Marshall E, Pinner GT, Longworth J, Maddox V, et al. Sociodemographic variables, clinical features, and the role of preassessment cross-sex hormones in older trans people. J Sex Med. 2016;13(4):711–9 This study is one of the rare investigations into how gender-affirming hormone therapy affects the behavioral health of older transgender people. CrossRefPubMed
47.
Zurück zum Zitat Glynn TR, Gamarel KE, Kahler CW, Iwamoto M, Operario D, Nemoto T. The role of gender affirmation in psychological well-being among transgender women. Psychol Sex Orientat Gend Divers. 2016;3(3):336–44.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Glynn TR, Gamarel KE, Kahler CW, Iwamoto M, Operario D, Nemoto T. The role of gender affirmation in psychological well-being among transgender women. Psychol Sex Orientat Gend Divers. 2016;3(3):336–44.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
48.
Zurück zum Zitat Owen-Smith AA, Gerth J, Sineath RC, Barzilay J, Becerra-Culqui TA, Getahun D, et al. Association between gender confirmation treatments and perceived gender congruence, body image satisfaction, and mental health in a cohort of transgender individuals. J Sex Med. 2018;15(4):591–600.CrossRefPubMed Owen-Smith AA, Gerth J, Sineath RC, Barzilay J, Becerra-Culqui TA, Getahun D, et al. Association between gender confirmation treatments and perceived gender congruence, body image satisfaction, and mental health in a cohort of transgender individuals. J Sex Med. 2018;15(4):591–600.CrossRefPubMed
49.
Zurück zum Zitat Witcomb GL, Bouman WP, Claes L, Brewin N, Crawford JR, Arcelus J. Levels of depression in transgender people and its predictors: results of a large matched control study with transgender people accessing clinical services. J Affect Disord. 2018;235:308–15.CrossRefPubMed Witcomb GL, Bouman WP, Claes L, Brewin N, Crawford JR, Arcelus J. Levels of depression in transgender people and its predictors: results of a large matched control study with transgender people accessing clinical services. J Affect Disord. 2018;235:308–15.CrossRefPubMed
50.
Zurück zum Zitat • Gooren LJ, Sungkaew T, Giltay EJ, Guadamuz TE. Cross-sex hormone use, functional health and mental well-being among transgender men (Toms) and transgender women (Kathoeys) in Thailand. Cult Health Sex. 2015;17(1):92–103 This study is the first to explore gender-affirming hormone therapy use in transgender populations of Southeast Asia, specifically Thailand. CrossRef • Gooren LJ, Sungkaew T, Giltay EJ, Guadamuz TE. Cross-sex hormone use, functional health and mental well-being among transgender men (Toms) and transgender women (Kathoeys) in Thailand. Cult Health Sex. 2015;17(1):92–103 This study is the first to explore gender-affirming hormone therapy use in transgender populations of Southeast Asia, specifically Thailand. CrossRef
51.
Zurück zum Zitat Bonierbale M, Baumstarck K, Maquigneau A, Gorin-Lazard A, Boyer L, Loundou A, et al. MMPI-2 profile of French transsexuals: the role of sociodemographic and clinical factors. A cross-sectional design. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24281.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Bonierbale M, Baumstarck K, Maquigneau A, Gorin-Lazard A, Boyer L, Loundou A, et al. MMPI-2 profile of French transsexuals: the role of sociodemographic and clinical factors. A cross-sectional design. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24281.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
52.
Zurück zum Zitat de Vries ALC, McGuire JK, Steensma TD, Wagenaar ECF, Doreleijers TAH, Cohen-Kettenis PT. Young adult psychological outcome after puberty suppression and gender reassignment. Pediatrics. 2014;134(4):696–704.CrossRefPubMed de Vries ALC, McGuire JK, Steensma TD, Wagenaar ECF, Doreleijers TAH, Cohen-Kettenis PT. Young adult psychological outcome after puberty suppression and gender reassignment. Pediatrics. 2014;134(4):696–704.CrossRefPubMed
53.
Zurück zum Zitat Gómez-Gil E, Zubiaurre-Elorza L, de Antonio IE, Guillamon A, Salamero M. Determinants of quality of life in Spanish transsexuals attending a gender unit before genital sex reassignment surgery. Qual Life Res Int J Qual Life Asp Treat Care Rehab. 2014;23(2):669–76. Gómez-Gil E, Zubiaurre-Elorza L, de Antonio IE, Guillamon A, Salamero M. Determinants of quality of life in Spanish transsexuals attending a gender unit before genital sex reassignment surgery. Qual Life Res Int J Qual Life Asp Treat Care Rehab. 2014;23(2):669–76.
54.
Zurück zum Zitat Fisher AD, Castellini G, Bandini E, Casale H, Fanni E, Benni L, et al. Cross-sex hormonal treatment and body uneasiness in individuals with gender dysphoria. J Sex Med. 2014;11(3):709–19.CrossRefPubMed Fisher AD, Castellini G, Bandini E, Casale H, Fanni E, Benni L, et al. Cross-sex hormonal treatment and body uneasiness in individuals with gender dysphoria. J Sex Med. 2014;11(3):709–19.CrossRefPubMed
55.
Zurück zum Zitat Testa RJ, Rider GN, Haug NA, Balsam KF. Gender confirming medical interventions and eating disorder symptoms among transgender individuals. Health Psychol. 2017;36(10):927–36.CrossRefPubMed Testa RJ, Rider GN, Haug NA, Balsam KF. Gender confirming medical interventions and eating disorder symptoms among transgender individuals. Health Psychol. 2017;36(10):927–36.CrossRefPubMed
56.
Zurück zum Zitat Jones BA, Haycraft E, Bouman WP, Brewin N, Claes L, Arcelus J. Risk factors for eating disorder psychopathology within the treatment seeking transgender population: the role of cross-sex hormone treatment. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2018;26(2):120–8.CrossRefPubMed Jones BA, Haycraft E, Bouman WP, Brewin N, Claes L, Arcelus J. Risk factors for eating disorder psychopathology within the treatment seeking transgender population: the role of cross-sex hormone treatment. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2018;26(2):120–8.CrossRefPubMed
57.
Zurück zum Zitat • Pol H, Cohen-Kettenis P, Haren NEM, Peper J, Brans R, Cahn W, et al. Changing your sex changes your brain: influences of testosterone and estrogen on adult human brain structure. Eur J Endocrinol 2006;155. This article is a longitudinal study of both FTM and MTF transgender populations, using neuroimaging methods to report the effects of brain structures before and during gender-affirming hormone therapy. • Pol H, Cohen-Kettenis P, Haren NEM, Peper J, Brans R, Cahn W, et al. Changing your sex changes your brain: influences of testosterone and estrogen on adult human brain structure. Eur J Endocrinol 2006;155. This article is a longitudinal study of both FTM and MTF transgender populations, using neuroimaging methods to report the effects of brain structures before and during gender-affirming hormone therapy.
58.
Zurück zum Zitat Seiger R, Hahn A, Hummer A, Kranz GS, Ganger S, Woletz M, et al. Subcortical gray matter changes in transgender subjects after long-term cross-sex hormone administration. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016;74:371–9.CrossRefPubMed Seiger R, Hahn A, Hummer A, Kranz GS, Ganger S, Woletz M, et al. Subcortical gray matter changes in transgender subjects after long-term cross-sex hormone administration. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016;74:371–9.CrossRefPubMed
59.
Zurück zum Zitat Burke SM, Manzouri AH, Dhejne C, Bergström K, Arver S, Feusner JD, et al. Testosterone effects on the brain in transgender men. Cereb Cortex. 2018;28(5):1582–96.CrossRefPubMed Burke SM, Manzouri AH, Dhejne C, Bergström K, Arver S, Feusner JD, et al. Testosterone effects on the brain in transgender men. Cereb Cortex. 2018;28(5):1582–96.CrossRefPubMed
60.
Zurück zum Zitat Kranz GS, Hahn A, Kaufmann U, Tik M, Ganger S, Seiger R, et al. Effects of testosterone treatment on hypothalamic neuroplasticity in female-to-male transgender individuals. Brain Struct Funct. 2018;223(1):321–8.CrossRefPubMed Kranz GS, Hahn A, Kaufmann U, Tik M, Ganger S, Seiger R, et al. Effects of testosterone treatment on hypothalamic neuroplasticity in female-to-male transgender individuals. Brain Struct Funct. 2018;223(1):321–8.CrossRefPubMed
61.
Zurück zum Zitat Gómez-Gil E, Cañizares S, Torres A, de la Torre F, Halperin I, Salamero M. Androgen treatment effects on memory in female-to-male transsexuals. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2009;34(1):110–7.CrossRefPubMed Gómez-Gil E, Cañizares S, Torres A, de la Torre F, Halperin I, Salamero M. Androgen treatment effects on memory in female-to-male transsexuals. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2009;34(1):110–7.CrossRefPubMed
62.
Zurück zum Zitat Shanmugan S, Loughead J, Cao W, Sammel MD, Satterthwaite TD, Ruparel K, et al. Impact of tryptophan depletion on executive system function during menopause is moderated by childhood adversity. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017;42(12):2398–406.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Shanmugan S, Loughead J, Cao W, Sammel MD, Satterthwaite TD, Ruparel K, et al. Impact of tryptophan depletion on executive system function during menopause is moderated by childhood adversity. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017;42(12):2398–406.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
63.
Zurück zum Zitat Epperson CN, Shanmugan S, Kim DR, Mathews S, Czarkowski KA, Bradley J, et al. New onset executive function difficulties at menopause: a possible role for lisdexamfetamine. Psychopharmacology. 2015;232(16):3091–100.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Epperson CN, Shanmugan S, Kim DR, Mathews S, Czarkowski KA, Bradley J, et al. New onset executive function difficulties at menopause: a possible role for lisdexamfetamine. Psychopharmacology. 2015;232(16):3091–100.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Metadaten
Titel
Gender-Affirming Hormone Use in Transgender Individuals: Impact on Behavioral Health and Cognition
verfasst von
Hillary B. Nguyen
Alexis M. Chavez
Emily Lipner
Liisa Hantsoo
Sara L. Kornfield
Robert D. Davies
C. Neill Epperson
Publikationsdatum
01.12.2018
Verlag
Springer US
Erschienen in
Current Psychiatry Reports / Ausgabe 12/2018
Print ISSN: 1523-3812
Elektronische ISSN: 1535-1645
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-018-0973-0

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 12/2018

Current Psychiatry Reports 12/2018 Zur Ausgabe

Disaster Psychiatry: Trauma, PTSD, and Related Disorders (MJ Friedman, Section Editor)

Chromosomes to Social Contexts: Sex and Gender Differences in PTSD

Disaster Psychiatry: Trauma, PTSD, and Related Disorders (MJ Friedman, Section Editor)

The Current Evidence for Acute Stress Disorder

Disaster Psychiatry: Trauma, PTSD, and Related Disorders (MJ Friedman, Section Editor)

PTSD and Physical Health

Complex Medical-Psychiatric Issues (MB Riba, Section Editor)

Diagnosis and Management of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Alzheimer’s Disease

Genetic Disorders (F Goes, Section Editor)

Robust Findings From 25 Years of PSTD Genetics Research

Update Psychiatrie

Bestellen Sie unseren Fach-Newsletter und bleiben Sie gut informiert.