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20.02.2019 | Original Article | Ausgabe 8/2019

Digestive Diseases and Sciences 8/2019

Generalized Cytokine Increase in the Setting of a Multisystem Clinical Disorder and Carcinoid Syndrome Associated with a Novel NLRP12 Variant

Digestive Diseases and Sciences > Ausgabe 8/2019
Noam Jacob, Sonya S. Dasharathy, Viet Bui, Jihane N. Benhammou, Wayne W. Grody, Ram Raj Singh, Joseph R. Pisegna
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Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are a group of cytoplasmic sensors that survey danger signals released by invading pathogens or damaged tissue. Mutations in the NLRP subfamily affect pro-inflammatory mediators and cause nonspecific systemic symptoms.


We sought to identify a potential genetic etiology of an inflammatory syndrome in a patient that presented with an atypical multisystem illness with carcinoid syndrome as well as atopic and autoimmune features.


Exome sequencing was performed using the Agilent SureSelect Clinical Research Exome XT kit on an Illumina HiSeq 2500. Longitudinal monitoring of pro-inflammatory cytokines was performed.


We identified a novel variant (heterozygous c.536C > T [p.Thr179Ile]) in the NLRP12 gene in a 63-year-old woman and her daughter, who presented with an unusual clinical syndrome that differs from autoinflammatory disorders previously reported in association with the NLRP subfamily gene mutations. This NLRP12 variant was predicted to be pathogenic by functional analysis through Hidden Markov Models (FATHMM). Both the mother and the daughter had episodes of abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, skin rash, hypothyroidism, and elevated urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels. The proband also had elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α), Th1 (IL-2, IFN-γ), and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) cytokines, but not of Th17 (IL-17) and IL-10.


This report adds to the expanding spectrum of clinical manifestations attributed to the NLRP subfamily gene variants and suggests a role of NLRP12 in the regulation of multiple cytokines.

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