The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1758-5996-6-39) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
There are no conflicts of interest.
The first author LH (corresponding author) designed the study with support from BT, the statistician (PhD). Data files and calculations were performed by LB (MD). All three authors were involved with data analysis and interpretation as well as writing the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Both low and high serum phosphate levels may be associated with morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. As smoking increases risk for type 2 diabetes (as shown by dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia), we wanted to study whether smoking and type 2 diabetes were associated with serum phosphate and triglyceride levels independently from other CVD risk factors.
Upon admittance to the Vindeln Health Education Centre (VHE-centre) for a four-week comprehensive lifestyle intervention, the participants (1408 women and 1096 men) completed a questionnaire that included their smoking habits – current smoker or non-smoker. We used multiple linear regression analyses to investigate the association between smoking and other CVD risk factors with S-P and S-TG levels.
In the non-type 2 diabetes populations, the smokers, compared to the non-smokers, had higher S-P and higher serum triglycerides (S-TG). In women, serum-TG in smokers with type 2 diabetes was higher than in smokers with non-type 2 diabetes. Non-type 2 diabetes patients exhibited an inverse relation between S-Glucose (S-Glu) and S-P and a positive association with S-TG. For men only, an association was seen between age (-) and S-Crea (-) and S-P. For women only, an association was seen between BMI (-) and S-Cholesterol (+) (S-Chol) and S-P.
Compared to non-smokers, smoking women with non-type 2 diabetes and smoking men with type 2 diabetes had a higher level of S-P and S-TG. The association between smoking and S-P and S-TG levels still existed after adjusting for age and CVD risk factors in the multiple linear regression analyses.
The study has been registered as a sub-study to the Lifestyle Intervention Trial no. ISRCTN79355192.
Authors’ original file for figure 113098_2013_413_MOESM1_ESM.tif
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- High serum phosphate and triglyceride levels in smoking women and men with CVD risk and type 2 diabetes
Lena M Håglin
Lennart O Bäckman
- BioMed Central
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