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06.04.2020 | PULMONARY INFECTIOUS DISEASE | Ausgabe 3/2020

Lung 3/2020

Incidence and Risk of Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Adults with Distinct Underlying Medical Conditions: A Population-Based Study

Zeitschrift:
Lung > Ausgabe 3/2020
Autoren:
A. Vila-Corcoles, O. Ochoa-Gondar, A. Vila-Rovira, M. Aragon, L. Esteban-Julvez, N. Chamorro, I. Hospital, E. Satue, J. Blade, C. de Diego, F. Gomez-Bertomeu, X. Raga
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Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated the incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia requiring hospitalisation among middle-aged and older adults with and without specific underlying medical conditions, evaluating the influence of these conditions in the risk of developing pneumonia.

Methods

Population-based prospective cohort study included 2,025,730 individuals ≥ 50 years around Catalonia, Spain. The Catalonian information system for the development of research in primary care (SIDIAP) was used to establish baseline characteristics of the cohort (comorbidities and underlying medical conditions). Hospitalisations from pneumococcal pneumonia occurred among cohort members between 01/01/2015 and 31/12/2015 were collected from hospital discharge codes of 68 reference Catalonian hospitals. Cox regression was used to estimate the association between baseline conditions and the risk of developing pneumonia.

Results

Global incidence rate (IR) of hospitalised pneumococcal pneumonia was 82.8 cases per 100,000 persons-year. Maximum IRs (per 100,000 persons-year) emerged among persons with haematological neoplasia (837.4), immunodeficiency (709.2), HIV infection (474.7), severe renal disease (407.5) and chronic pulmonary disease (305.7). In the multivariable analyses, apart from increasing age, HIV infection (hazard ratio [HR] 6.78), haematological neoplasia (HR 6.30), prior all-cause pneumonia (HR 5.27), immunodeficiency (HR 4.57) and chronic pulmonary disease (HR 2.89) were the conditions most strongly associated with an increasing risk. Pneumococcal vaccination did not emerge associated with a reduced risk in our study population (nor PPsV23 neither PCV13).

Conclusion

Old age, immunocompromising conditions and chronic pulmonary/respiratory disease are major risk factors for pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. Our data underline the need for better prevention strategies in these persons.

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