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05.11.2015 | Original Paper | Ausgabe 5/2016

AIDS and Behavior 5/2016

Late Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Metropolitan Areas of the United States and Puerto Rico

AIDS and Behavior > Ausgabe 5/2016
H. Irene Hall, Tian Tang, Lorena Espinoza
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s10461-015-1241-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.


The majority of persons infected with HIV live in large metropolitan areas and many such areas have implemented intensified HIV testing programs. A national indicator of HIV testing outcomes is late diagnosis of HIV infection (stage 3, AIDS). Based on National HIV Surveillance System data, 23.3 % of persons with HIV diagnosed in 2012 had a late diagnosis in large MSAs, 26.3 % in smaller MSAs, and 29.6 % in non-metropolitan areas. In the 105 large MSAs, the percentage diagnosed late ranged from 13.2 to 47.4 %. During 2003–2012, the percentage diagnosed late decreased in large MSAs (32.2–23.3 %), with significant decreases in 41 of 105 MSAs overall and among men who have sex with men. Sustained testing efforts may help to continue the decreasing trend in late-stage HIV diagnosis and provide opportunities for early care and treatment and potential reduction in HIV transmission.

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