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06.03.2019 | Original Article | Ausgabe 5/2019 Open Access

European Journal of Applied Physiology 5/2019

Liver and muscle glycogen oxidation and performance with dose variation of glucose–fructose ingestion during prolonged (3 h) exercise

European Journal of Applied Physiology > Ausgabe 5/2019
Andy J. King, John P. O’Hara, Nicola C. Arjomandkhah, Josh Rowe, Douglas J. Morrison, Thomas Preston, Roderick F. G. J. King
Wichtige Hinweise
Communicated by Guido Ferretti.

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This study investigated the effect of small manipulations in carbohydrate (CHO) dose on exogenous and endogenous (liver and muscle) fuel selection during exercise.


Eleven trained males cycled in a double-blind randomised order on 4 occasions at 60% \(\dot {V}{{\text{O}}_{2\;\hbox{max} }}\) for 3 h, followed by a 30-min time-trial whilst ingesting either 80 g h−1 or 90 g h−1 or 100 g h−1 13C-glucose-13C-fructose [2:1] or placebo. CHO doses met, were marginally lower, or above previously reported intestinal saturation for glucose–fructose (90 g h−1). Indirect calorimetry and stable mass isotope [13C] techniques were utilised to determine fuel use.


Time-trial performance was 86.5 to 93%, ‘likely, probable’ improved with 90 g h−1 compared 80 and 100 g h−1. Exogenous CHO oxidation in the final hour was 9.8–10.0% higher with 100 g h−1 compared with 80 and 90 g h−1 (ES = 0.64–0.70, 95% CI 9.6, 1.4 to 17.7 and 8.2, 2.1 to 18.6). However, increasing CHO dose (100 g h−1) increased muscle glycogen use (101.6 ± 16.6 g, ES = 0.60, 16.1, 0.9 to 31.4) and its relative contribution to energy expenditure (5.6 ± 8.4%, ES = 0.72, 5.6, 1.5 to 9.8 g) compared with 90 g h−1. Absolute and relative muscle glycogen oxidation between 80 and 90 g h−1 were similar (ES = 0.23 and 0.38) though a small absolute (85.4 ± 29.3 g, 6.2, − 23.5 to 11.1) and relative (34.9 ± 9.1 g, − 3.5, − 9.6 to 2.6) reduction was seen in 90 g h−1 compared with 100 g h−1. Liver glycogen oxidation was not significantly different between conditions (ES < 0.42). Total fat oxidation during the 3-h ride was similar in CHO conditions (ES < 0.28) but suppressed compared with placebo (ES = 1.05–1.51).


‘Overdosing’ intestinal transport for glucose–fructose appears to increase muscle glycogen reliance and negatively impact subsequent TT performance.

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