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01.06.2014 | Retinal Disorders | Ausgabe 6/2014

Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 6/2014

Risk factors for exudative age-related macular degeneration in a large French case–control study

Zeitschrift:
Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology > Ausgabe 6/2014
Autoren:
Jennyfer Zerbib, Cécile Delcourt, Nathalie Puche, Giuseppe Querques, Salomon Yves Cohen, José Sahel, Jean-François Korobelnik, Mélanie Le Goff, Eric H. Souied
Wichtige Hinweise
A part of the results have been presented at the ARVO Meeting and at the French Annual Meeting (SFO) in 2011.
None of the authors have a proprietary interest in the study. The authors have full control of all primary data, and they agree to allow Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology to review their data if requested.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the CAP (Creteil AMD PHRC-funded) Study was to analyze risk factors of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a large French case–control population.

Patients and methods

One thousand and twenty-four patients with exudative AMD and 275 controls were recruited. Information about lifestyle, medical history, and dietary intake were collected. Associations of risk factors were estimated using logistic regression.

Results

After multivariate adjustment, CFH Y402H and ARMS2 A69S polymorphisms were associated with very high risk for exudative AMD (OR = 6.21 and OR = 11.7, respectively, p < 0.0001). Risk for exudative AMD was increased in current smokers (OR = 3.79, p = 0.0003) and former smokers having quitted since less than 20 years ago (OR = 2.30, p = 0.002), but not in former smokers having quitted since 20 years or more ago (OR = 0.81, p = 0.43). Heavy smokers (at least 25 pack-years) were particularly at risk (OR = 3.61, p < 0.0001). Use of cooking oils rich in omega 3 fatty acids was significantly associated with a reduced risk of exudative AMD (OR = 0.55, 95 % CI: 0.36–0.84, p = 0.006), as well as a high consumption of fruits (OR = 0.60, 95 % CI: 0.37–0.98, p = 0.04), but not the consumption of fish, vegetables or oils rich in omega 6. High waist circumference was associated with increased risk for exudative AMD (OR = 2.53, p < 0.0001), but not hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, or body mass index.

Conclusions

The CAP Study confirms major genetic risk factors for exudative AMD. It further documents the high risk in heavy smokers and the long persistence of risk after smoking cessation, and the associations with waist circumference and fruit consumption. Furthermore, we observed an inverse correlation between AMD and cooking oils harboring a beneficial omega-3 fatty acid profile.

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