The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1477-7827-10-106) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.
DZ participated in the design of the study, collected the materials, carried out all experiments, and drafted the manuscript. DZ, HX, and XS collected the materials and helped maintain the cell culture. CM and WZ conceived of the study. WZ participated in its design and coordination and helped draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
S100P, a protein originally detected in the human placenta, has been found to play an important role in the development and invasion of tumors. Interestingly, we have recently discovered using data mining that S100P was considerably up-regulated during the window of implantation in the human endometrium, but little further information has been available.
Real-time PCR and immunofluorescence were performed to examine the expression and location of S100P in the human endometrium and endometrial cells. Estrogen and progesterone were added to the cultured cells to test the response of S100P to sex steroids.
A dramatic peak, approximately a 100-fold increase in comparison with the proliferative and early- and late-secretory phases, was observed in the endometrium during the mid-secretory phase, which corresponds to the time of embryo implantation. Progesterone regulated the expression of S100P in both primary endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, but estrogen had no significant effect.
The results indicate that S100P participates in the periodic change of the endometrium under the regulation of progesterone, may be used as a unique biomarker of the receptive endometrium and play an important role in embryo implantation.
Additional file 1: Figure S1. The purity staining of EECs and ESCs. Cell immunocytochemical characterization of EECs and ESCs are shown. Immunocytochemistry shows that EECs express cytokeratin 7 (C) but do not express vimentin (E), and ESCs express vimentin (F) but do not express cytokeratin 7 (D). PBS substituted for the primary antibody was used as the negative control (A and B). Scale bar = 50 um. (TIFF 1409 kb) (TIFF 1 MB)12958_2012_1038_MOESM1_ESM.tiff
Additional file 2: Figure S2. The specificity validation of the primary antibodies. The mouse anti-human S100P monoclonal antibody (1:1000) and rabbit anti-human beta-actin antibody (1:3000) were used as the primary antibody in Western blot analysis. Total 40 μg protein of each column was used. The upper panel shows the S100P signal detected from negative (A and B) and positive (C and D) controls, and the lower panel shows the equal of loading samples stained by beta-actin antibody. (TIFF 45 kb) (TIFF 46 KB)12958_2012_1038_MOESM2_ESM.tiff
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- S100P Expression in response to sex steroids during the implantation window in human endometrium
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