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01.09.2009 | Ausgabe 9/2009 Open Access

Surgical Endoscopy 9/2009

Suturing training in Augmented Reality: gaining proficiency in suturing skills faster

Surgical Endoscopy > Ausgabe 9/2009
S. M. B. I. Botden, I. H. J. T. de Hingh, J. J. Jakimowicz



Providing informative feedback and setting goals tends to motivate trainees to practice more extensively. Augmented Reality simulators retain the benefit of realistic haptic feedback and additionally generate objective assessment and informative feedback during the training. This study researched the performance curve of the adapted suturing module on the ProMIS Augmented Reality simulator.


Eighteen novice participants were pretrained on the MIST-VR to become acquainted with laparoscopy. Subsequently, they practiced 16 knots on the suturing module, of which the assessment scores were recorded to evaluate the gain in laparoscopic suturing skills. The scoring of the assessment method was calculated from the “time spent in the correct area” during the knot tying and the quality of the knot. Both the baseline knot and the knot at the top of the performance curve were assessed by two independent objective observers, by means of a standardized evaluation form, to objectify the gain in suturing skills.


There was a statistically significant difference between the scores of the second knot (mean 72.59, standard deviation (SD) 16.28) and the top of the performance curve (mean 95.82, SD 3.05; p < 0.001, paired t-test). The scoring of the objective observers also differed significantly (mean 11.83 and 22.11, respectively; SD 3.37 and 3.89, respectively; p < 0.001) (interobserver reliability Cronbach’s alpha = 0.96). The median amount of repetitions to reach the top of the performance curve was eight, which also showed significant differences between both the assessment score (mean 88.14, SD 13.53, p < 0.001) and scoring of the objective observers of the second knot (mean 20.51, SD 4.14; p < 0.001).


This adapted suturing module on the ProMIS Augmented Reality laparoscopic simulator is a potent tool for gaining laparoscopic suturing skills.

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