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01.12.2012 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Malaria Journal 1/2012

The detection of pfcrt and pfmdr1 point mutations as molecular markers of chloroquine drug resistance, Pahang, Malaysia

Zeitschrift:
Malaria Journal > Ausgabe 1/2012
Autoren:
Wahib M Atroosh, Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi, Mohammed AK Mahdy, Johari Surin
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1475-2875-11-251) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

WMA was involved in all phases of the study, including study design, data collection, data analysis, interpretation, and write-up of the manuscript; HMA, MAKM and JS designed the study; WMA and HMA performed the statistical analysis; MAKM provided technical advisory support in genotyping and data interpretation; All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Abstract

Background

Malaria is still a public health problem in Malaysia with chloroquine (CQ) being the first-line drug in the treatment policy of uncomplicated malaria. There is a scarcity in information about the magnitude of Plasmodium falciparum CQ resistance. This study aims to investigate the presence of single point mutations in the P. falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter gene (pfcrt) at codons 76, 271, 326, 356 and 371 and in P. falciparum multi-drug resistance-1 gene (pfmdr1) at codons 86 and 1246, as molecular markers of CQ resistance.

Methods

A total of 75 P. falciparum blood samples were collected from different districts of Pahang state, Malaysia. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in pfcrt gene (codons 76, 271, 326, 356 and 371) and pfmdr1 gene (codons 86 and 1246) were analysed by using mutation-specific nested PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods.

Results

Mutations of pfcrt K76T and pfcrt R371I were the most prevalent among pfcrt gene mutations reported by this study; 52% and 77%, respectively. Other codons of the pfcrt gene and the positions 86 and 1246 of the pfmdr1 gene were found mostly of wild type. Significant associations of pfcrt K76T, pfcrt N326S and pfcrt I356T mutations with parasitaemia were also reported.

Conclusion

The high existence of mutant pfcrt T76 may indicate the low susceptibility of P. falciparum isolates to CQ in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings of this study establish baseline data on the molecular markers of P. falciparum CQ resistance, which may help in the surveillance of drug resistance in Peninsular Malaysia.
Zusatzmaterial
Authors’ original file for figure 1
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Authors’ original file for figure 2
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Authors’ original file for figure 3
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Literatur
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