The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-151) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
SK performed the molecular assays, data analysis, and manuscript writing. JJ collected field samples and identified the mosquitoes based on their morphological characteristics. SL and HH identified the mosquitoes by molecular identification methods. JJ and WK supervised the work and manuscript writing. WK was responsible for the management of and fund raising for this study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
In the Republic of Korea (ROK), six sibling species of the Anopheles sinensis complex are considered the vector species of malaria, but data on their susceptibilities to malaria and vector capacities have been controversial. The intensive use of insecticides has contributed to the rapid development and spread of insecticide resistance in the An. sinensis complex. Knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids and DDT in the An. sinensis complex is associated with a mutation in codon 1014 of the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene. Because the degree of insecticide resistance varies among mosquito species and populations, the detection of kdr mutations among the six sibling species of the An. sinensis complex is a prerequisite for establishing effective long-term vector control strategies in the ROK
In order to investigate species-specific kdr mutations, An. sinensis complex specimens have been collected from 22 sites in the ROK. Because of the difficulties with species identifications that are based only on morphological characteristics, molecular identification methods have been conducted on every specimen. Part of the IIS6 domain of the VGSC was polymerase chain reaction-amplified and directly sequenced.
The molecular analyses revealed that mutations existed at codon 1014 only in An. sinensis sensu stricto and no mutations were found in the other five Anopheles species. In An. sinensis s.s., one wild type (TTG L1014) and three mutant types (TTT L1014F, TTC L1014F, and TGT L1014C) of kdr alleles were detected. The TTC L1014F mutation was observed for the first time in this species.
The fact that the highly polymorphic kdr gene is only observed in An. sinensis s.s., out of the six Anopheles species and their geographical distribution suggest the need for future studies of insecticide resistance monitoring and investigations of species-specific resistance mechanisms in order to build successful malaria vector control programmes in the ROK.
Lee WJ, Klein TA, Kim HC, Choi YM, Yoon SH, Chang KS, Chong ST, Lee IY, Jones JW, Jacobs JS, Sattabongkot J, Park JS: Anopheles kleini, Anopheles pullus, and Anopheles sinensis: potential vectors of Plasmodium vivax in the Republic of Korea. J Med Entomol. 2007, 44: 1086-1090. 10.1603/0022-2585(2007)44[1086:AKAPAA]2.0.CO;2. PubMed
Rueda LM: Two new species of Anopheles (Anopheles) Hyrcanus group (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Republic of South Korea. Zootaxa. 2005, 941: 1-26.
Tanaka K, Mizusawa K, Saugstad ES: A Revision of the adult and larval mosquitoes of Japan (including the Ryukyu Archipelago and the Ogasawara Islands) and Korea (Diptera: Culicidae). Contrib Am Entomol Inst. 1979, 16: 1-987.
Li C, Lee JS, Groebner JL, Kim HC, Klein TA, O’guinn ML, Wilkerson RC: A newly recognized species in the Anopheles Hyrcanus Group and molecular identification of related species from the Republic of South Korea (Diptera: Culicidae). Zootaxa. 2005, 939: 1-8.
Lee DK, Lee YJ, Kim HC: Seasonal prevalence and host-seeking of mosquitoes in southeastern Republic of Korea. Entomol Res. 2009, 39: 257-265. 10.1111/j.1748-5967.2009.00231.x. CrossRef
Ma Y, Qu F, Xu F, Li X, Song G: Differences in sequences of ribosomal DNA second internal transcribed spacer among three members of Anopheles hyrcanus complex from the Republic of Korea. Insect Sci. 2000, 7: 36-40. 10.1111/j.1744-7917.2000.tb00338.x. CrossRef
Min GS, Choochote W, Jitpakdi A, Kim SJ, Kim W, Jung J, Junkum A: Intraspecific hybridization of Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) strains from Thailand and Korea. Mol Cells. 2002, 14: 198-204. PubMed
Shin EH, Kim HK, Park C, Lee DK, Kang H, Chang KS: Insecticide susceptibility and resistance of Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae collected from Gwangju, Republic of Korea. Entomol Res. 2011, 41: 157-160. 10.1111/j.1748-5967.2011.00328.x. CrossRef
Wilkerson RC, Li C, Rueda LM, Kim HC, Klein TA, Song GH, Strickman D: Molecular confirmation of Anopheles (Anopheles) lesteri from the Republic of South Korea and its genetic identity with An. (Ano.) anthropophagus from China (Diptera: Culicidae). Zootaxa. 2003, 378: 1-14.
Davidson G: The five mating-types in the Anopheles gambiae complex. Riv Malariol. 1964, 43: 167- PubMed
Joshi D, Choochote W, Min GS: Natural hybrid between Anopheles kleini and Anopheles sinensis. AmJTrop Med Hyg. 2009, 81: 1020-1022. CrossRef
Rivero A, Vézilier J, Weill M, Read AF, Gandon S: Insecticide control of vector-borne diseases: when is insecticide resistance a problem?. PLoS Pathol. 2010, 6: e1001000-10.1371/journal.ppat.1001000. CrossRef
Diabate A, Brengues C, Baldet T, Dabiré KR, Hougard JM, Akogbeto M, Kengne P, Simard F, Guillet P, Hemingway J, Chandre F: The spread of the Leu-Phe kdr mutation through Anopheles gambiae complex in Burkina Faso: genetic introgression and de novo phenomena. Trop Med Int Health. 2004, 9: 1267-1273. 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2004.01336.x. CrossRefPubMed
Hoti SL, Vasuki V, Jambulingam P, Sahu SS: kdr allele-based PCR assay for detection of resistance to DDT in Anopheles culicifacies sensu lato Giles population from Malkangiri District, Orissa, India. Curr Sci. 2006, 91: 658-661.
Karunaratne S, Hawkes NJ, Perera MDB, Ranson H, Hemingway J: Mutated sodium channel genes and elevated monooxygenases are found in pyrethroid resistant populations of Sri Lankan malaria vectors. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2007, 88: 108-113. 10.1016/j.pestbp.2006.10.001. CrossRef
Kim H, Baek JH, Lee WJ, Lee SH: Frequency detection of pyrethroid resistance allele in Anopheles sinensis populations by real-time PCR amplification of specific allele (rtPASA). Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2007, 87: 54-61. 10.1016/j.pestbp.2006.06.009. CrossRef
Luleyap HU, Alptekin D, Kasap H, Kasap M: Detection of knockdown resistance mutations in Anopheles sacharovi (Diptera: Culicidae) and genetic distance with Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) using cDNA sequencing of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. J Med Entomol. 2002, 39: 870-874. 10.1603/0022-2585-39.6.870. CrossRefPubMed
Martinez Torres D, Chandre F, Williamson MS, Darriet F, Berge JB, Devonshire AL, Guillet P, Pasteur N, Pauron D: Molecular characterization of pyrethroid knockdown resistance (kdr) in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Insect Mol Biol. 1998, 7: 179-184. 10.1046/j.1365-2583.1998.72062.x. CrossRefPubMed
Tan WL, Wang ZM, Li CX, Chu HL, Xu Y, Dong YD, Wang Z, Chen DY, Liu H, Liu DP: First report on co-occurrence knockdown resistance mutations and susceptibility to beta-cypermethrin in Anopheles sinensis from Jiangsu Province. China. PLoS One. 2012, 7: e29242-10.1371/journal.pone.0029242. CrossRefPubMed
Chang KS, Jung JS, Park C, Lee DK, Shin E: Insecticide susceptibility and resistance of larvae of the Anopheles sinensis goup (Diptera: Culicidae) from Paju, Republic of Korea. Entomol Res. 2009, 39: 196-200. 10.1111/j.1748-5967.2009.00218.x. CrossRef
Ree HI, Paik YH: Insecticide susceptibility tests on adults of Anopheles sinensis in Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 1967, 5: 65-68. 10.3347/kjp.19220.127.116.11. CrossRef
Shin E, Park YI, Lee HI, Lee WJ, Shin YH, Shim JC: Insecticide susceptibilities of Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae from Paju-shi, Korea. Entomol Res. 2003, 33: 33-37. 10.1111/j.1748-5967.2003.tb00046.x. CrossRef
Cui F, Raymond M, Qiao CL: Insecticide resistance in vector mosquitoes in China. Pest Manage Sci. 2006, 62: 1013-1022. 10.1002/ps.1288. CrossRef
Soderlund DM: Pyrethroids, knockdown resistance and sodium channels. Pest Manage Sci. 2008, 64: 610-616. 10.1002/ps.1574. CrossRef
Shim JC, Shin EH, Yang DS, Lee WK: Seasonal prevalence and feeding time of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) at outbreak regions of domestic malaria (P. vivax) in Korea. Korean J Entomol. 1997, 27: 265-278.
Chai JY: Re-emerging malaria. J Korean Med Assoc. 1997, 40: 728-733.
Ree HI: Can malaria be endemic in South Korea?. Korean J Infect Dis. 1998, 30: 397-400.
Crow JF, Kimura M: An introduction to population genetics theory. 1970, Harper & Row, New York
Frankham R: Relationship of genetic variation to population size in wildlife. Conserv Biol. 1996, 10: 1500-1508. 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10061500.x. CrossRef
Soulé M: Allozyme variation: its determinants in space and time. Molecular Evolution. Edited by: Ayala F, Sunderland MA. 1976, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, 60-77.
Jung J, Jung Y, Min GS, Kim W: Analysis of the population genetic structure of the malaria vector Anopheles sinensis in South Korea based on mitochondrial sequences. AmJTrop Med Hyg. 2007, 77: 310-
- The polymorphism and the geographical distribution of the knockdown resistance (kdr) of Anopheles sinensis in the Republic of Korea
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin
Mail Icon II