Electronic supplementary material
What is Known
• X-ray is currently the gold standard for localizing central venous line (CVL) tip position.
• Malposition of CVL tip can lead to life-threatening complications.
What is New
• POC-US is superior to X-ray as it can follow CVL tip position over time, detecting malpositioned lines, adjusting them in a timely manner thus preventing complications.
• Standardizing CVL placement, X-ray acquisition, POC-US acquisition with four views with video clips and ultrasound operator training increases accuracy and thus agreement between X-ray and POC-US.
• UVC tip is more likely to be malpositoned than PICC tip. Malposition of UVC tip using POC-US decreased over time due to shrinking of the umbilical cord in the first 48 of life.