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01.12.2017 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

Journal of Hematology & Oncology 1/2017

Association of a novel point mutation in MSH2 gene with familial multiple primary cancers

Zeitschrift:
Journal of Hematology & Oncology > Ausgabe 1/2017
Autoren:
Hai Hu, Hong Li, Feng Jiao, Ting Han, Meng Zhuo, Jiujie Cui, Yixue Li, Liwei Wang
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s13045-017-0523-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

Background

Multiple primary cancers (MPC) have been identified as two or more cancers without any subordinate relationship that occur either simultaneously or metachronously in the same or different organs of an individual. Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that increases the risk of many types of cancers. Lynch syndrome patients who suffer more than two cancers can also be considered as MPC; patients of this kind provide unique resources to learn how genetic mutation causes MPC in different tissues.

Methods

We performed a whole genome sequencing on blood cells and two tumor samples of a Lynch syndrome patient who was diagnosed with five primary cancers. The mutational landscape of the tumors, including somatic point mutations and copy number alternations, was characterized. We also compared Lynch syndrome with sporadic cancers and proposed a model to illustrate the mutational process by which Lynch syndrome progresses to MPC.

Results

We revealed a novel pathologic mutation on the MSH2 gene (G504 splicing) that associates with Lynch syndrome. Systematical comparison of the mutation landscape revealed that multiple cancers in the proband were evolutionarily independent. Integrative analysis showed that truncating mutations of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes were significantly enriched in the patient. A mutation progress model that included germline mutations of MMR genes, double hits of MMR system, mutations in tissue-specific driver genes, and rapid accumulation of additional passenger mutations was proposed to illustrate how MPC occurs in Lynch syndrome patients.

Conclusion

Our findings demonstrate that both germline and somatic alterations are driving forces of carcinogenesis, which may resolve the carcinogenic theory of Lynch syndrome.

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