25.11.2021 | Neurology • Original Article
Differential characteristics of repeated polysomnography and multiple sleep latency test parameters in narcolepsy type 1 and type 2 patients: a longitudinal retrospective study
Yoo Hyun Um, Jihye Oh, Sung-Min Kim, Tae-Won Kim, Ho-Jun Seo, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Seung-Chul Hong
Sleep and Breathing
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Narcolepsy is a chronic disorder and its phenotype is dichotomized into narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2). The clinical course and pathophysiological mechanisms of these two clinical entities and their differences are not adequately defined. This study aimed to explore the differential longitudinal patterns of polysomnography (PSG) and multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) in NT1 and NT2.
In this retrospective study demographic characteristics, PSG, and MSLT parameters at baseline and follow-up were compared between NT1 and NT2 patients. Patients with both follow-up MSLT and PSG were selected for sub-group analysis. Baseline and follow-up MSLT and PSG parameters were compared.
Of 55 patients with narcolepsy, mean follow-up periods were 7.4 ± 3.5 years for NT1 and 5.5 ± 2.9 for NT2. Demographic data showed increased body mass index and prevalence of sleep paralysis in NT1. Baseline PSG characteristics between NT1 and NT2 showed decreased sleep latency (p = 0.016) and REM latency (p = 0.046) in NT1 group when compared with NT2. Nocturnal SOREMP on PSG was more prevalent in NT1 (p = 0.017), and half of NT2 patients with nocturnal SOREMP on PSG changed their diagnoses to NT1. On follow-up PSG, NT1 displayed reductions in sleep stage N2 (p = 0.006) and N3 (p = 0.048), while wake after sleep onset (WASO) (p = 0.023) and apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) (p = 0.007) were significantly increased.
Differential MSLT and PSG characteristics of NT1 and NT2 in at baseline and follow-up indicate that NT1 and NT2 are distinct disease phenotypes, and that they present with a contrasting course of disease.