The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-51) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declared that they have no conflicts of interests.
BZ and WZ participated in the design of the study. BZ and YL drafted the manuscript. BZ and YZ analysed the data. BZ, WZ, YZ, YC, ZY, and YZ conceived of the study, and participated in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Different population studies have reported gender difference in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), which is proved to be a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. However, few longitudinal researches examine this gender difference in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Therefore, we prospectively analyzed CIMT in T2DM patients over a 4-year follow-up period.
355 T2DM patients (mean age 59 years; 54.9% women) were included in the present study. CIMT were measured using Color Doppler ultrasound. CIMT was measured at baseline (CIMT) in 2006 and at follow-up in 2010. Biochemical and clinical measurements were collected at baseline.
Mean value of CIMT1 and CIMT2 were 0.740 ± 0.148 mm and 0.842 ± 0.179 mm, respectively. Men had higher CIMT than women both at baseline and at follow-up (CIMT1: 0.762 ± 0.149 vs 0.723 ± 0.146 mm, P = 0.0149; CIMT2: 0.880 ± 0.189 vs 0.810 ± 0.164 mm, P = 0.0002). Mean annual progression of CIMT (dCIMT) was 0.025 ± 0.022 mm/year. dCIMT was larger in men than in women (0.030 ± 0.025 vs 0.022 ± 0.019 mm, P = 0.0006). In multiple regression analyses, age was an independent risk factor of CIMT in both genders, while dCIMT was associated with age only in men.
Gender difference in CIMT was confirmed in T2DM patients. Moreover, impact of ageing on CIMT progression only existed in men, which might be the reason that gender difference in CIMT increased with age.
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- Gender difference in carotid intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetic patients: a 4-year follow-up study
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