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22.12.2016 | Original Paper | Ausgabe 5/2017

Clinical Research in Cardiology 5/2017

IMPROV-ED study: outcomes after discharge for an episode of acute-decompensated heart failure and comparison between patients discharged from the emergency department and hospital wards

Clinical Research in Cardiology > Ausgabe 5/2017
Òscar Miró, Víctor Gil, Carolina Xipell, Carolina Sánchez, Sira Aguiló, Francisco J. Martín-Sánchez, Pablo Herrero, Javier Jacob, Alexandre Mebazaa, Veli-Pekka Harjola, Pere Llorens, ICA-SEMES Research Group
Wichtige Hinweise
Ò. Miró and V. Gil have equally contributed in the manuscript to be considered both as first authors.
The list of other investigators of the ICA-SEMES research group is listed in “Acknowledgements”.



To define the short- and mid-term outcomes of patients discharged after an episode of acute-decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and evaluate the differences between patients discharged directly from the emergency department (ED) and those discharged after hospitalization.


We performed a prospective, multicenter, cohort-designed study, including consecutive patients diagnosed with ADHF in 27 Spanish EDs. Thirty-four variables on epidemiology, comorbidity, baseline status, vital signs, signs of congestion, laboratory tests, and treatment were collected in every patient. The primary outcome was a combined endpoint of ED revisit (without hospitalization) or hospitalization due to ADHF, or all-cause death. Secondary outcomes were each of these three events individually. Outcomes were obtained by survival analysis at different timepoints in the entire cohort, and crude and adjusted comparisons were carried out between patients discharged directly from the ED and after hospitalization.


Of the 3233 patients diagnosed with ADHF during a 2-month period, we analyzed 2986 patients discharged alive: 787 (26.4%) discharged from the ED and 2199 (73.6%) after hospitalization. The cumulative percentages of events for the whole cohort (at 7/30/180 days) for the combined endpoint were 7.8/24.7/57.8; for ED revisit 2.5/9.4/25.5; for hospitalization 4.6/15.3/40.7; and for death 0.9/4.3/16.8. After adjustment for patient profile and center, significant increases were found in the hazard ratios for ED- compared to hospital-discharged patients in the combined endpoint, ED revisit and hospitalization, being higher at short-term [at 7 days, 2.373 (1.678–3.355), 2.069 (1.188–3.602), and 3.071 (1.915–4.922), respectively] than at mid-term [at 180 days, 1.368 (1.160–1.614), 1.642 (1.265–2.132), and 1.302 (1.044–1.623), respectively]. No significant differences were found in death.


Patients with ADHF discharged from the ED have worse outcomes, especially at short term, than those discharged after hospitalization. The definition and implementation of effective strategies to improve patient selection for direct ED discharge are needed.

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