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26.10.2017 | Prevention of Heart Failure (M Sutton, Section Editor) | Ausgabe 6/2017

Current Heart Failure Reports 6/2017

Visceral Congestion in Heart Failure: Right Ventricular Dysfunction, Splanchnic Hemodynamics, and the Intestinal Microenvironment

Zeitschrift:
Current Heart Failure Reports > Ausgabe 6/2017
Autoren:
Vincenzo B. Polsinelli, Arjun Sinha, Sanjiv J. Shah
Wichtige Hinweise
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Prevention of Heart Failure

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Visceral venous congestion of the gut may play a key role in the pathogenesis of right-sided heart failure (HF) and cardiorenal syndromes. Here, we review the role of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, visceral congestion, splanchnic hemodynamics, and the intestinal microenvironment in the setting of right-sided HF. We review recent literature on this topic, outline possible mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, and discuss potential therapeutics.

Recent Findings

There are several mechanisms linking RV–gut interactions via visceral venous congestion which could result in (1) hypoxia and acidosis in enterocytes, which may lead to enhanced sodium–hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) expression with increased sodium and fluid retention; (2) decreased luminal pH in the intestines, which could lead to alteration of the gut microbiome which could increase gut permeability and inflammation; (3) alteration of renal hemodynamics with triggering of the cardiorenal syndrome; and (4) altered phosphate metabolism resulting in increased pulmonary artery stiffening, thereby increasing RV afterload. A wide variety of therapeutic interventions that act on the RV, pulmonary vasculature, intestinal microenvironment, and the kidney could alter these pathways and should be tested in patients with right-sided HF.

Summary

The RV–gut axis is an important aspect of HF pathogenesis that deserves more attention. Modulation of the pathways interconnecting the right heart, visceral congestion, and the intestinal microenvironment could be a novel avenue of intervention for right-sided HF.

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