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01.09.2009 | Original Article | Ausgabe 5/2009

International Journal of Legal Medicine 5/2009

Cocaine and opiate concentrations in hair from subjects in a heroin maintenance program in comparison to a methadone substituted group

Zeitschrift:
International Journal of Legal Medicine > Ausgabe 5/2009
Autoren:
Frank Musshoff, Katrin Lachenmeier, Dirk Lichtermann, Burkhard Madea
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s00414-008-0272-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

One month before (T-1) and 12 months after (T12) controlled i.v. administration of pharmaceutical heroin–HCl (10–100 mg/day) in the context of a heroin maintenance program (HMP), concentrations of opiates and cocaine as well as its metabolites were determined in head hair (n = 46) using a validated gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric method. In addition, a patient collective of a methadone maintenance program (MMP, daily doses 15–260 mg) was examined (n = 35). The incidence of additional cocaine consumption decreased in both groups during the study period (T-1 to T12): in HMP from 64.6% to 45.8% and in MMP from 71.4% to 60.0%. A significant reduction of cocaine consumption was defined as an at least 30% reduction of analyte concentrations in hair (Δc > 30%). Accordingly, in HMP, a decrease in 45.8% of initially (T-1) cocaine-positive patients was determined; in MMP, the reduction was 48.6%. In 22.9% of HMP and 37.1% of MMP, an increase of cocaine concentrations was detected. Codeine and acetylcodeine were found in 50.0% and 43.5% (T-1) and 13.0% and 10.9% (T12) of the samples of the HMP, as well as in 45.7% and 25.7% (T-1) and 17.1% and 5.7% (T12) in MMP, respectively. The missing of acetylcodeine, in particular at T-1, questions its applicability as a characteristic marker of a preceding consumption of illicit heroin in hair analysis.

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Zusatzmaterial
Table S1 GC–MS procedure: mean measurement values, residual standard deviation (RSD), intraday and interday precision (P) and accuracy at concentrations of 0.5, 5 and 25 ng/mg (49.5 KB)
414_2008_272_MOESM1_ESM.doc
Table S2 Concentrations of heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine, codeine, acetylcodeine, cocaine, cocaethylene and benzoylecgonine (in ng/mg) analysed with GC–MS in hair of participants of the heroin maintenance program at T-1 and T12 (247 KB)
414_2008_272_MOESM2_ESM.doc
Table S3 Concentrations of heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine, codeine, acetylcodeine, cocaine, cocaethylene and benzoylecgonine (in ng/mg) analysed with GC-MS in hair of participants of the methadone maintenance program at T-1 and T12 (165 KB)
414_2008_272_MOESM3_ESM.doc
Literatur
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