12.07.2017 | Original Article
Immunodeficiency in Two Female Patients with Incontinentia Pigmenti with Heterozygous NEMO Mutation Diagnosed by LPS Unresponsiveness
Hidenori Ohnishi, Yuka Kishimoto, Tomohide Taguchi, Norio Kawamoto, Mina Nakama, Tomoki Kawai, Manabu Nakayama, Osamu Ohara, Kenji Orii, Toshiyuki Fukao
Journal of Clinical Immunology
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Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) is caused by mutations in the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) or NF-κB inhibitor, alpha (IKBA) genes. A heterozygous NEMO mutation causes incontinentia pigmenti (IP) in females, while a hemizygous hypomorphic mutation of NEMO causes EDA-ID in males. In general, immunodeficiency is not shown in IP patients. Here, we investigated two female patients with IP and immunodeficiency.
The patients were initially suspected to have IRAK4 deficiency and Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease, respectively, because of recurrent pneumonia with delayed umbilical cord detachment or disseminated mycobacterial infectious disease. We measured tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production and performed mutation screening.
The TNF-α production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated CD14-positive cells was partially defective in both female patients. A genetic analysis showed them to carry the heterozygous NEMO mutations c.1167_1168insC or c.1192C>T. Although NEMO mutations in IP patients are typically eliminated by X-inactivation skewing, an analysis of cDNA obtained from the somatic cells of the patients showed the persistence of these mutations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and peripheral granulocytes. A NF-κB reporter gene analysis using NEMO-deficient HEK293 cells showed the loss of NF-κB activity in these NEMO mutants, while the NF-κB protein expression levels by the NEMO mutants were consistent with those of wild-type NEMO.
The delayed skewing of the mutant allele may be responsible for the observed innate immune defect in these patients. The detection of LPS unresponsiveness is suitable for identifying female IP patients with immunodeficiency.