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01.12.2016 | Short report | Ausgabe 1/2016 Open Access

Journal of Neuroinflammation 1/2016

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces remote apoptotic cell death and inflammation after focal brain injury

Journal of Neuroinflammation > Ausgabe 1/2016
Valeria Sasso, Elisa Bisicchia, Laura Latini, Veronica Ghiglieri, Fabrizio Cacace, Valeria Carola, Marco Molinari, Maria Teresa Viscomi
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​s12974-016-0616-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



After focal brain injuries occur, in addition to the effects that are attributable to the primary site of damage, the resulting functional impairments depend highly on changes that occur in regions that are remote but functionally connected to the site of injury. Such effects are associated with apoptotic and inflammatory cascades and are considered to be important predictors of outcome. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique that is used to treat various central nervous system (CNS) pathologies and enhance functional recovery after brain damage.


This study examined the efficacy of rTMS in mitigating remote degeneration and inflammation and in improving functional recovery in a model of focal brain damage.


Rats that were undergoing hemicerebellectomy (HCb) were treated with an rTMS protocol for 7 days, and neuronal death indices, glial activation, and functional recovery were assessed.


rTMS significantly reduced neuronal death and glial activation in remote regions and improved functional recovery.


Our finding opens up a completely new scenario for exploiting the potential of rTMS as an anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory treatment.
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