The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12902-015-0053-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Authors declare no competing interests. The opinions expressed by the authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the authors’ affiliated institutions or the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
Concept development and study design: DSK, DK, RB, BK, BKK, and EK. Data Collection: DSK. Drafting the first manuscript: DSK, DK. Data analysis: DSK, EM. Manuscript writing, first draft and critical review of manuscript: All authors. Study oversight/supervision EM, RB, and EK. All authors read and approved the final draft of manuscript before submission.
Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with acute stroke and other cardiovascular diseases in the developed world. Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) has been described in some populations in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in spite of adequate sunshine all year round. There is no information on the magnitude of vitamin D deficiency among patients with stroke and other cardiovascular diseases in Uganda or SSA. The aim of this study was to determine the burden and characteristics of vitamin D deficiency among patients with acute stroke, the most common form of cardiovascular events in SSA.
We conducted a cross-sectional study between October 2012 and March 2013. We consecutively recruited 142 subjects with acute stroke admitted to the medical wards of Mulago hospital. We administered a pre-tested questionnaire to the study participants, and did a detailed physical examination and laboratory evaluation. Serum levels of 25OHD were determined using an electrochemiluminescence assay. Data were analyzed using STATA version 12 software.
The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25OHD < 20 ng/ml) was 15 %. Longer hours of sunshine exposure decreased the likelihood vitamin D deficiency significantly (adjusted OR 0.85, p = 0.03). Higher HDL cholesterol had a significant inverse association with vitamin D deficiency (adjusted OR 0.15, p = 0.02). In addition, the likelihood of vitamin D deficiency increased with rising age (adjusted OR 1.03, p = 0.05).
There was a relatively low burden of vitamin D deficiency among patients with acute stroke in Uganda. With increasing longevity and indoor lifestyles vitamin D deficiency may assume a greater role in stroke and other cardiovascular diseases in tropical sub Saharan Africa. Future studies on the mechanisms of vitamin D deficiency and its relationship to outcomes among patients with stroke may be necessary.
Additional file 1: Study data Collection form. (PDF 83 kb)12902_2015_53_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
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- Vitamin D deficiency and its characteristics among patients with acute stroke at a national referral hospital in Kampala Uganda
Daniel S. Kiggundu
Brian K. Kigozi
- BioMed Central
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