Skip to main content

31.07.2018 | Original Contribution

Intake of free sugar and micronutrient dilution in Australian children and adolescents

European Journal of Nutrition
Tommy Hon Ting Wong, Angelique Mok, Rabia Ahmad, Anna Rangan, Jimmy Chun Yu Louie
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00394-018-1801-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Tommy Hon Ting Wong and Angelique Mok contributed equally.



This cross-sectional analysis aimed to investigate the association between free sugar intake and micronutrient intake in Australian children and adolescents and to assess the effectiveness of the cut-off of < 10% energy intake from free sugar (%EFS) as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).


Dietary data of children and adolescents from the Australian Health Survey 2011–12 were analyzed (n = 1466). Free sugar intake was estimated using a published methodology with modification to suit the definition of free sugar. Six cut-offs for %EFS were created in 5% increments. Participants’ mean intakes of 18 micronutrients, as well as their intakes of core (healthy) and discretionary (unhealthy) foods, at different cut-offs were compared using ANCOVA, with age, sex, and socioeconomic status measures as covariates. The odds ratios of not meeting the nutrient reference values (NRVs) for Australia and New Zealand of each micronutrient were calculated using logistic regression.


Micronutrient intake decreased with increasing %EFS and the peak intakes of most micronutrients appeared between 0–15%EFS. The absolute intakes of most micronutrients were not significantly different between participants who consumed < 10%EFS and ≥ 10%EFS. Those with > 20%EFS were less likely to meet the NRVs of more than half of the micronutrients. Additionally, as %EFS increased, intakes of core food groups decreased, while intakes of discretionary food groups increased.


The dilution effect in micronutrient intake with increasing free sugar intake was evident in Australian children and adolescents. However, meeting the WHO cut-off was associated with limited improvement in micronutrient adequacy.

Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten

e.Med Interdisziplinär

Mit e.Med Interdisziplinär erhalten Sie Zugang zu allen CME-Fortbildungen und Fachzeitschriften auf Zusätzlich können Sie eine Zeitschrift Ihrer Wahl in gedruckter Form beziehen – ohne Aufpreis.

Supplementary material 1 (PPTX 45 KB)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 80 KB)
Über diesen Artikel