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01.12.2014 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2014 Open Access

BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 1/2014

Serum TGF-β1 and SMAD3 levels are closely associated with coronary artery disease

BMC Cardiovascular Disorders > Ausgabe 1/2014
Can Chen, Wei Lei, Wenjiang Chen, Jianfeng Zhong, Xiaoxin Gao, Bo Li, Huailong Wang, Congxin Huang
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1471-2261-14-18) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors had no conflicts of interest to declare in relation to this article.

Authors’ contributions

WL and CC performed the study and wrote the manuscript. WC, JZ, and WL performed the study and/or contributed to data analysis and interpretation. XG, BL, and HW reviewed/approved the research protocol. CH takes full responsibility for the work as a whole, including the study design, access to data, and the decision to submit and publish the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most common diseases leading to mortality and morbidity worldwide. There is considerable debate on whether serum transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) levels are associated with long-term major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with CAD, and to date, no study has specifically addressed levels in patients with different degrees of CAD severity.


Serum TGF-β1 and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3) concentrations were evaluated in 279 patients with CAD and 268 controls without CAD. The clinical and biochemical characteristics of all subjects were also determined and analyzed.


TGF-β1 and SMAD3 concentrations in CAD patients were significantly higher than those in the controls. The serum TGF-β1 level in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was significantly higher than that in both stable angina pectoris (SAP) and unstable angina pectoris (UAP) (p < 0.05), while there was no marked difference between levels in SAP and UAP (p > 0.05). SMAD3 levels showed no obvious difference among AMI, SAP, and UAP. TGF-β1 and SMAD3 are potential biomarkers for CAD, and may be more accurate than Lpa, ApoA1, uric acid, BUN, or triglycerides (TG).


Serum TGF-β1 and SMAD3 levels are closely associated with CAD, and may become useful biomarkers for diagnosis and risk stratification.
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